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List of American conservatives

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values,[1] moral absolutism,[2] free markets and free trade,[3][4] anti-communism,[4][5] individualism,[4] advocacy of American exceptionalism,[6] and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.[7] The recent movement is based in the Republican Party, though some Democrats were also important figures early in the movement's history.[8][9]

The following list is made up of prominent American conservative people from the public and private sectors. The list also includes political parties, organizations and media outlets which have made a notable impact on conservatism in the United States. Entries on the list must have achieved notability after 1932, the beginning of the Fifth Party System.

People

Intellectuals, writers, and activists

William F. Buckley Jr., conservative writer
Bill Kristol, conservative writer
Phyllis Schlafly speaking at CPAC 2011
Name Lifetime Notability Ref.
Garet Garrett 1878–1954 financial journalist [10]
Clarence Manion 1896–1979 direct-mailer [11]
Friedrich Hayek 1899–1992 author of The Constitution of Liberty [12]
Whittaker Chambers 1901–1961 author of Witness [13][14]
James Burnham 1905–1987 anti-communist defender of Senator Joseph McCarthy [15]
Frank Meyer 1909–1972 editor of the Books, Arts and Manners section of National Review [16]
Richard M. Weaver 1910–1963 author of Ideas Have Consequences [17][18]
George J. Stigler 1911–1991 economist [19]
Milton Friedman 1912–2006 economist [20]
Russell Kirk 1918–1994 author of The Conservative Mind [17][21]
William A. Rusher 1923–2011 publisher of National Review [22]
Phyllis Schlafly 1924–2016 activist [23]
William F. Buckley Jr. 1925–2008 author, television host, and founder of National Review [24][25]
L. Brent Bozell Jr. 1926–1997 speechwriter for Senator Joseph McCarthy [25]
Tim LaHaye 1926–2016 author and political activist [26]
Beverly LaHaye 1929- activist and founder of Concerned Women for America [27][28][29][30]
Thomas Sowell 1930– author, columnist, professor, and economist at the Hoover Institution [31]
James Q. Wilson 1931–2012 social scientist [32]
Richard Viguerie 1933– media pioneer [33][34]
Walter E. Williams 1938– author, columnist, and economics professor [35][36][37]
Morton Blackwell 1939– president of the Leadership Institute [38]
Arthur Laffer 1940– economist [39]
George Will 1941– columnist for the Washington Post [40][41]
Edwin Feulner 1941– founder of the Heritage Foundation [42]
Paul Weyrich 1942–2008 president of the Heritage Foundation [43]
Charles Krauthammer 1950–2018 public intellectual [44]
Peggy Noonan 1950– columnist for the Wall Street Journal [31]
Bruce Bartlett 1951– economist [45]
Bill Kristol 1952– editor of The Weekly Standard [38]
Mary Matalin 1953– Republican operative who worked in both Bush administrations [38]
L. Brent Bozell III 1955– founder of the Parents Television Council [46]
Grover Norquist 1956– president of Americans for Tax Reform [38]
Dinesh D'Souza 1961– author, filmmaker, and convicted (and pardoned) felon [47][48]
Ben Shapiro 1984– political commentator, public speaker, author, and lawyer
Charlie Kirk 1993– founder and president of Turning Point USA [49]

Politicians, office holders, and jurists

Sarah Palin speaking at the CPAC
Vice President Dick Cheney (right) with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld (left) and President George W. Bush (center)
Senator Barry Goldwater (right) meeting with President Ronald Reagan (left) in the oval office in 1984
Name Lifetime Notability Ref.
Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg 1884–1951 senator known for his opposition to the New Deal [50]
Senator Robert A. Taft 1889–1953 first chairman of the Senate Republican Policy Committee [51]
Senator John W. Bricker 1893–1986 Thomas E. Dewey's running mate in the 1944 presidential election [52]
Senator Everett Dirksen 1896–1969 senator who helped get the Civil Rights Act passed [53]
Ambassador Clare Boothe Luce 1903–1987 politician, writer, and ambassador [54]
Senator Joseph McCarthy 1908–1957 senator known for his principal role in the Red Scare of the 1950s [55][56]
Senator Barry Goldwater 1909–1998 1964 GOP presidential candidate [17]
President Ronald Reagan 1911–2004 40th president of the United States [57][58]
Chief Justice William Rehnquist 1924–2005 chief justice of the Supreme Court [59]
UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick 1926–2006 ambassador to the United Nations [60]
Attorney General Edwin Meese 1931– attorney general during the Reagan administration [61]
Senator Orrin Hatch 1934– senator from Utah [62]
Congressman Jack Kemp 1935–2009 congressman known for his support of supply-side economics and urban renewal [63]
Congressman Larry McDonald 1935–1983 congressman who also served as president of the John Birch Society [64]
Congressman Ron Paul 1935– congressman and sometime presidential candidate who promoted a libertarian agenda within the GOP [38]
Justice Antonin Scalia 1936–2016 Supreme Court justice known as a leading exponent of originalism and textualism [65]
Pat Buchanan 1938– paleoconservative advisor to multiple presidents; presidential candidate [66][67][68]
House Majority Leader Dick Armey 1940– former Majority Leader of the House of Representatives [69]
Vice President Dick Cheney 1941– former vice president known for his hawkish views on national security [70]
Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich 1943– former Speaker of the House of Representatives known for his criticism of the Clinton, G. W. Bush, and Obama administrations [70]
President Donald Trump 1946– 45th president of the United States [71][72][73][74][75][76]
President George W. Bush 1946– 43rd president of the United States [77][70]
Senator Mitt Romney 1947– Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 - 2007, and 2012 GOP presidential candidate [70]
House Majority Leader Tom DeLay 1947– Republican congressman convicted on charges related illegal campaign finance activities [31]
UN Ambassador John R. Bolton 1948– National Security Advisor, former U.N. ambassador, and foreign policy hawk [78]
Justice Clarence Thomas 1948– Supreme Court justice [38]
Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove 1950– political strategist to George W. Bush [79]
Senator Jim DeMint 1951– Tea Party-affiliated former U.S. senator; onetime president of the Heritage Foundation [80]
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice 1954– secretary of state during the George W. Bush administration [81]
Chief Justice John Roberts 1955– chief justice of the Supreme Court [70]
Congresswoman Michele Bachmann 1956– congresswoman who sought the 2012 Republican nomination for president [82]
Vice President Mike Pence 1959– vice president under Donald Trump [83][70]
Senator Rand Paul 1963– U.S. senator from Kentucky, libertarian-leaning conservative, and son of Ron Paul [84]
Governor Sarah Palin 1964– former Governor of Alaska; 2008 Republican vice presidential nominee|\[70]
Senator Tim Scott 1965– senator from South Carolina [85]
Governor Scott Walker 1967– governor of Wisconsin [86]
Senator Ted Cruz 1970– Tea Party-affiliated U.S. senator who finished second in the 2016 Republican presidential primaries [87][88]
Speaker of the House Paul Ryan 1970– Speaker of the House [89][70]
Senator Mike Lee 1971– Tea Party-affiliated U.S. senator [90]
Senator Marco Rubio 1971– U.S. senator from Florida [91][31][88]
Senator Tom Cotton 1977– U.S. senator from Arkansas [92]

Business and religious leaders involved in conservative politics

Billy Graham, evangelical minister
Name Lifetime Notability Ref.
Roger Milliken 1915–2010 businessman [93]
Joseph Coors 1917–2003 businessman [94]
Billy Graham 1918–2018 evangelist known for his support of capitalism [95]
Sun Myung Moon 1920–2012 founder of the Unification Church [96]
Richard DeVos 1926– co-founder of Amway [97]
Rupert Murdoch 1931– CEO of News Corp and 21st Century Fox [98]
Richard Mellon Scaife 1932–2014 billionaire donor to conservative organizations [99]
Sheldon Adelson 1933– billionaire donor to conservative political candidates [100]
Jerry Falwell 1933–2007 televangelist [101][102]
Charles G. Koch 1935– billionaire industrialist and donor to conservative organizations and candidates [97][103]
Foster Friess 1940– billionaire donor to conservative organizations [104]
David H. Koch 1940–2019 billionaire industrialist and donor to conservative organizations and candidates [97][103]
Richard Land 1946– former lobbyist for the Southern Baptist Convention [105]
Robert Mercer 1946– donor to conservative organizations such as Breitbart News [106]
Franklin Graham 1952– evangelist and political activist [107]
Tony Perkins 1963– chairman of the Family Research Council [31]
Peter Thiel 1967– venture capitalist and political activist [108]
Russell Moore 1971– president of the Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention [109]

Media personalities: publishers, editors, radio hosts, columnists and bloggers

Michael Medved, conservative radio show host
Name Lifetime Notability Ref.
Raymond Moley 1886–1975 columnist [110]
David Lawrence 1888–1973 author of Beyond the New Deal [111]
Clarence Manion 1896–1979 talk radio host [112]
Henry Luce 1898–1967 founder of Time [113]
Fulton Lewis 1903–1966 radio host [114]
Henry Regnery 1912–1996 activist [115]
Paul Harvey 1918–2009 radio commentator [116]
Bob Grant 1929–2013 talk show host [117]
William Safire 1929–2009 commentator for the New York Times [41][118]
Roger Ailes 1940–2017 president of Fox News [70]
Michael Savage 1942– talk radio host [38]
Herman Cain 1945– radio host, syndicated columnist, and candidate in the 2012 Republican presidential primaries [119]
Lou Dobbs 1945– television newscaster [120]
Michael Medved 1948– talk radio host [121]
Dennis Prager 1948– talk radio host [122][123]
Bill O'Reilly 1949– Television and radio host [124][31]
Rush Limbaugh 1951– talk radio host [70]
Larry Elder 1952– filmmaker [125]
Charlie Sykes 1954– talk-show host [126]
Hugh Hewitt 1956– talk radio host [122][127]
Sean Hannity 1961– host of "Hannity" and "The Sean Hannity Show" [128]
Ann Coulter 1961– political commentator [129][130]
Laura Ingraham 1964– Fox News and talk radio commentator [40][131]
Elizabeth Cheney 1966– Fox News commentator, activist, congresswoman, and daughter of former Vice President Dick Cheney [31]
Matt Drudge 1966– Creator, and editor of the Drudge Report [132][133]
Andrew Breitbart 1969–2012 blogger, author, journalist, and creator of Breitbart News [17][134]
Tucker Carlson 1969– Fox News commentator [135]
Jonah Goldberg 1969– commentator [40]
Michelle Malkin 1970– newspaper columnist, author, and blogger [136]
Erick Erickson 1975– RedState.com blogger [137]
Dana Loesch 1978– talk show host [138]

Organizations

Think tanks

Hoover Tower at Stanford University, location of the Hoover Institution Library and Archives
Name Founded/defunct Notability Ref.
Acton Institute 1990– promotes "individual liberty ... sustained by religious principles" [139]
American Enterprise Institute 1938– promotes limited government [139]
Cato Institute 1974– promotes Right-libertarianism [139]
Claremont Institute 1979– promotes limited government [139]
Competitive Enterprise Institute 1984– promotes limited government [139]
Discovery Institute 1990– promotes the free market [139]
The Heartland Institute 1984– promotes climate change denial [140][141]
The Heritage Foundation 1973– promotes "[c]onservative social values" [139]
Hoover Institution 1919– promotes "a free and peaceful society" [139]
Hudson Institute 1961– promotes conservatism [142]
Ludwig von Mises Institute 1982– promotes conservatism [140]
Manhattan Institute for Policy Research 1977– promotes privatization and limited government [140][143]
Mercatus Center 1980– promotes conservatism [140]
Reason Foundation 1978– promotes Right-libertarianism [140]

Foundations

Name Founded/defunct Notability Ref.
Bradley Foundation financially supports Republican-leaning think tanks [144][145]
John Templeton Foundation [144]
Koch family foundations gives millions of dollars to a variety of organizations [144][146]
Lovett and Ruth Peters Foundation [147]
Mercer Family Foundation gives millions of dollars to conservative organizations [148]
Olin Foundation defunct in 2005 financially supports Republican-leaning think tanks [149][145]
Richard and Helen DeVos Foundation gives millions of dollars to conservative organizations [97]
Scaife Foundations financially supports Republican-leaning think tanks [150][145]
Searle Freedom Trust financially supports Republican-leaning think tanks [145][150]
Smith Richardson Foundation financially supports Republican-leaning think tanks [144][145]

Political, social and economic organizations

Headquarters of Focus on the Family
United States Chamber of Commerce building in Washington, D.C. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Name Founded/defunct Notability Ref.
Alliance Defending Freedom 1994– Christian legal organization [151][152]
American Conservative Union 1964– organization "with the aim of coordinating and guiding American conservatism" [153]
American Family Association lobbying organization [154]
American Legislative Exchange Council organization that helps state legislators write bills [155][156]
Americans for Prosperity Tea Party movement organization [157]
Club for Growth political action committee [158]
Concerned Women for America 1979– conservative women's organization formed by Beverly LaHaye [159][160]
Council for National Policy 1981– elite organization that meets three times a year [161]
Faith and Freedom Coalition Republican fundraising organization [162]
Family Research Council 1983- conservative Christian organization [163]
Federalist Society legal organization [164]
Focus on the Family Christian organization [97]
Freedomworks grassroots organization [165]
Independent Women's Forum conservative women's organization [166]
John Birch Society far-right organization [167]
Judicial Watch educational foundation [168]
State Policy Network 1986– organization of state-based groups [169][170]
Turning Point USA 2012– organization formed by Charlie Kirk [171]
US Chamber of Commerce pro-business lobbying organization [172]
Young Americans for Freedom 1960– organization formed by William F. Buckley Jr. [67]

Media

Fox News Studios in 2009
The Washington Times newsroom
Name Founded/defunct Notability Ref.
The American Conservative Paleoconservative magazine founded by Patrick J. Buchanan [173]
The American Spectator publication known for its investigations of Bill Clinton during his presidency [174]
Blaze Media news outlet from 2018 merger of Glenn Beck's TheBlaze and Mark Levin's CRTV [175]
Breitbart News website formerly headed by Steve Bannon [176][177][178][179][180]
Chronicles monthly magazine that promotes "Western civilization" [173]
CNSNews.com 1998– website founded by L. Brent Bozell III [181]
Commentary neoconservative monthly magazine edited by John Podhoretz [182]
The Daily Caller website founded by Tucker Carlson [183]
Drudge Report website founded by Matt Drudge [184][132][185]
Fox News news outlet [186]
Free Republic website that promotes "front-line conservative activism" [187][188]
FrontPage website edited by David Horowitz [189]
Human Events weekly news magazine [173]
National Review 1955– magazine founded by William F. Buckley [182]
New York Post daily newspaper owned by News Corp [173]
Newsmax Media media firm headed by Christopher Ruddy [190]
One America News Network cable channel [191]
Reader's Digest 1922– magazine founded by George and Lila Acheson Wallace [192]
RedState website owned by Salem Media [193]
Regnery Publishing 1947– publishing house [194]
Sinclair Broadcast Group 1971– telecommunications company founded by Julian Sinclair Smith [195]
Townhall.com 1995– website that hosts conservative commentary [196]
The Wall Street Journal daily newspaper owned by Rupert Murdoch [173]
The Washington Free Beacon news website [197]
The Washington Times daily newspaper that covers politics [173]
The Weekly Standard 1995-2018 weekly magazine that covered politics [173]
WorldNetDaily news website [198][199]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Smith, Don (2003). If It Ain't Broke – Break It!: A Document for Both Liberals and Conservatives. United States. p. 59. ISBN 9780595275342. Conservatives have not liked what they see as the 'mushy' and 'confused' morals and the political, sexual and social mores of the American Nation of the last 50 years. They want clarity. They want guidelines based on Judeo-Christian values. They trust God. Most Conservatives believe any sexual activity outside of the marriage contract is wrong. They believe that abortion is equivalent to murder, and they oppose assisted suicide.
  2. ^ Farmer, Brian (2005). American Conservatism: History, Theory and Practice. United States: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 52. ISBN 978-1904303541. To traditional conservatives, there most definitely are moral absolutes and they can most definitely and definitively identify those moral absolutes.
  3. ^ Baldwin, Robert (2000). Congressional Trade Votes: From NAFTA Approval to Fast-track Defeat. United States: Peterson Institute for International Economics. p. 30. ISBN 9780881322675. Conservatism generally is associated with pro-business, anti-labor, and strong-national-defense stances, all of which lead to support for free trade principles.
  4. ^ a b c Lipsman, Ron (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. United States: United States. p. 232. ISBN 9780595463206. The American conservative system of rugged individualism, free markets, economic competition and deep respect for tradition...
  5. ^ Critchlow, Donald (2009). Debating the American Conservative Movement: 1945 to the Present. United States: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 978-0742548244. Conservatives had a fear of Communism shared by most Americans. During this time a popular anti-Communist culture emerged in America, evident in movies, television programs, community activities, and grassroots organizations. This popular anti-Communist culture generated patriotic rallies, parades, city resolutions, and an array of anti—Communist groups concerned about Communist influence in the schools, textbooks, churches, labor unions, industry, and universities.
  6. ^ Langdale, John (2012). Superfluous Southerners: Cultural Conservatism and the South, 1920-1990. United States: University of Missouri Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780826272850.
  7. ^ Pilbeam, Bruce (2003). Anglo-American Conservative Ideology After the Cold War. United States: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 100. ISBN 978-0333997659. For most conservatives, if there is a common culprit in explaining society's descent into moral chaos, then it is relativism – the notion that there are no absolute values or standards, merely different interpretations and perspectives.
  8. ^ Merle Black, "The transformation of the southern Democratic Party." Journal of Politics 66.4 (2004): 1001–1017.
  9. ^ Katznelson, Ira; Geiger, Kim; Kryder, Daniel (Summer 1993). "Limiting Liberalism: The Southern Veto in Congress, 1933–1950" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly. 108 (2): 283. doi:10.2307/2152013. JSTOR 2152013.
  10. ^ Bruce Ramsey (December 27, 2008). "The Capitalist Fiction of Garet Garrett". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  11. ^ Krugman, Paul. The Conscience of a Liberal. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print. p. 115
  12. ^ "Top 10 Books Every Republican Congressman Should Read." Human Events. 21 November 2006. 17 May 2017.
  13. ^ Nash, George H. (2009). The conservative Intellectual Movement in America since 1945. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. pp. 66, 88–94, 101, 108, 116–117, 131, 135, 137, 143–144, 145, 163, 213, 238, 243, 253, 325, 327, 367, 368, 379, 391, 405. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  14. ^ Tanenhaus, Sam. "Review: 'Exit Right: The People ....'" The Atlantic. March 2016. 13 July 2018.
  15. ^ Niels Bjerre-Poulsen (2002). Right Face: Organizing the American Conservative Movement 1945-65. Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-87-7289-809-4.
    Bruce Frohnen; Jeremy Beer; Nelson O. Jeffrey (2014). American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-4976-5157-9.
  16. ^ Gregory L. Schneider (2009). The Conservative Century: From Reaction to Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 55–60. ISBN 978-0-7425-4284-6.
    Ann Southworth (1 August 2009). Lawyers of the Right: Professionalizing the Conservative Coalition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN 978-0-226-76836-6.
    Donald T. Critchlow; Nancy MacLean (2009). "Frank Meyer What Is Conservatism?". Debating the American Conservative Movement: 1945 to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 177–180. ISBN 978-0-7425-4824-4.
  17. ^ a b c d Wyler, Grace and Paul Szoldra. "13 Books That Every Conservative Must Read." Business Insider. 29 March 2013. 17 May 2017.
  18. ^ Gregory L. Schneider (2009). The Conservative Century: From Reaction to Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7425-4285-3.
  19. ^ George H. Nash (8 April 2014). The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. p. 410. ISBN 978-1-4976-3640-8.
    Martin Gardner (15 July 1997). The Night Is Large: Collected Essays, 1938-1995. St. Martin's Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-312-16949-7.
    Martin Gardner (21 August 1999). The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener. St. Martin's Press. p. 421. ISBN 978-1-4668-2332-7.
    Jon A. Shields; Joshua M. Dunn (2016). Passing on the Right: Conservative Professors in the Progressive University. Oxford University Press. pp. 142–145. ISBN 978-0-19-986305-1.
  20. ^ William Ruger (26 September 2013). Milton Friedman. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8264-2595-9.
    John Ehrman (2005). The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan. Yale University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-300-10662-6.
    Iwan Morgan (16 September 2016). Reagan: American Icon. I.B.Tauris. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-78672-050-4.
    "22 Quotes to Celebrate Milton Friedman Day". The Daily Signal. The Heritage Foundation. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  21. ^ Bradley J. Birzer (17 September 2015). Russell Kirk: American Conservative. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-6619-3.
  22. ^ David B. Frisk (11 March 2014). If Not Us, Who?: William Rusher, National Review, and the Conservative Movement. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4804-9300-1.
    Timothy J. Sullivan (1 December 2008). New York State and the Rise of Modern Conservatism: Redrawing Party Lines. SUNY Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7914-7735-9.
    George H. Nash (8 April 2014). The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-4976-3640-8.
    McFadden, Robert D. (18 April 2011). "William Rusher, Champion of Conservatism, Dies at 87". New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  23. ^ Donald T. Critchlow (2005). Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade. Princeton University Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 0-691-07002-4.
    David Farber (25 April 2010). The Rise and Fall of Modern American Conservatism: A Short History. Princeton University Press. pp. 119–158. ISBN 0-691-12915-0.
    Ronnee Schreiber (16 June 2008). Righting Feminism: Conservative Women and American Politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-19-804418-5.
    Marjorie J. Spruill (28 February 2017). Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women's Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-63286-315-7.
  24. ^ John B. Judis, William F. Buckley Jr.: Patron Saint of the Conservatives (1990).
  25. ^ a b Ronald Lora; William Henry Longton (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-century America. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-0-313-21390-8.
    Lee Edwards (6 July 2015). Goldwater: The Man Who Made a Revolution. Regnery Publishing. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-62157-400-2.
    Deal W. Hudson (11 March 2008). Onward, Christian Soldiers: The Growing Political Power of Catholics and Evangelicals in the United States. Simon and Schuster. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4165-6589-5.
  26. ^ Farmer, American Political Ideologies, p. 45.
  27. ^ [religionandpolitics.org]
  28. ^ [copas.uni-regensburg.de]
  29. ^ [www.womenshistory.org]
  30. ^ "Influential Evangelicals-Tim and Beverly LaHaye". Time.com. 7 February 2005. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
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  32. ^ Professor Edward J Ahearn (28 April 2013). Urban Confrontations in Literature and Social Science, 1848-2001: European Contexts, American Evolutions. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-4094-7560-6.
    John Edwards; Marion Crain; Arne Kalleberg (10 May 2011). Ending Poverty in America: How to Restore the American Dream. New Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-59558-732-9.
  33. ^ "Donald Trump -- Conservatives ...." National Review. 21 January 2016. 17 May 2017.
  34. ^ "Richard A. Viguerie Biography." PBS. 29 October 2004. 13 July 2018.
  35. ^ [www.nytimes.com]
  36. ^ "Thomas Sowell – Biography". townhall.com. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  37. ^ "A Conservative Get-Together Like No Other". spectator.org. 27 April 2016.
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  39. ^ Francesco Forte; Ram Mudambi; Pietro Maria Navarra (28 March 2014). A Handbook of Alternative Theories of Public Economics. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-78100-471-5.
    Barry Cooper; Allan Kornberg; William Mishler (1988). The Resurgence of Conservatism in Anglo-American Democracies. Duke University Press. pp. 103–104.
    George H. Nash (8 April 2014). The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. p. 525. ISBN 978-1-4976-3640-8.
  40. ^ a b c Draper, Robert. "How Donald Trump Set Off a Civil War Within the Right-Wing Media." New York Times. 29 September 2016. 21 May 2017.
  41. ^ a b Jeff Taylor (27 September 2013). Politics on a Human Scale: The American Tradition of Decentralism. Lexington Books. p. 360. ISBN 978-0-7391-7576-7.
  42. ^ Thomas R. Dye (23 October 2015). Who's Running America?: The Obama Reign. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-317-24906-1.
    Donald T Critchlow (30 June 2009). The Conservative Ascendancy: how the GOP right made political history. Harvard University Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-674-03355-9.
    Michael J. Lacey; Mary O. Furner (25 June 1993). The State and Social Investigation in Britain and the United States. Cambridge University Press. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-521-41638-2.
    "Karl Rove Picks The Seven Most Powerful Conservatives". Forbes. Forbes Media LLC. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  43. ^ Conservative Leader Paul Weyrich Dies; First to Lead Heritage Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on December 05, 2017.
  44. ^ Jim DeMint (2011). The Great American Awakening: Two Years that Changed America, Washington, and Me. B&H Publishing Group. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-4336-7279-8.
    Jon A. Shields; Joshua M. Dunn (2016). Passing on the Right: Conservative Professors in the Progressive University. Oxford University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-0-19-986305-1.
    Lanny Davis (24 March 2015). Scandal: How "Gotcha" Politics Is Destroying America. St. Martin's Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4668-9280-4.
  45. ^ Krugman, 163
  46. ^ Allison Perlman (1 May 2016). Public Interests: Media Advocacy and Struggles over U.S. Television. Rutgers University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8135-7231-4.
    Robert Biersack; Paul S. Herrnson; Clyde Wilcox (1994). Risky Business?: PAC Decisionmaking in Congressional Elections. M.E. Sharpe. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-56324-295-3.
    Lee Fang (2013). The Machine: A Field Guide to the Resurgent Right. New Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-59558-639-1.
    Bernard von Bothmer (January 2010). Framing the Sixties: The Use and Abuse of a Decade from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 16. ISBN 1-55849-732-3.
  47. ^ "President Trump granted a full pardon Thursday to conservative commentator Dinesh D’Souza and said he was strongly considering clemency for other celebrity felons." Rucker, Philip, et al. "Trump pardons conservative pundit Dinesh D’Souza, suggests others also could receive clemency." Washington Post. 31 May 2018. 22 June 2018.
  48. ^ "President Donald Trump said Thursday he plans to issue a pardon to Dinesh D'Souza, a prominent conservative commentator and filmmaker who was convicted of making an illegal campaign contribution." Breuninger, Kevin and Tucker Higgins. "Trump will pardon conservative pundit Dinesh D'Souza, who was convicted of campaign finance violation." CNBC. 31 May 2018. 16 October 2018.
  49. ^ Guinto, Joseph. "Trump's Man on Campus" Politico Magazine. 6 April 2018.
  50. ^ J. Richard Piper (1997). Ideologies and Institutions: American Conservative and Liberal Governance Prescriptions Since 1933. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8476-8459-5.
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