African-American women have been practicing medicine informally in the contexts of midwifery and herbalism for centuries, but have only been practicing medicine formally as physicians since 1864, when Rebecca Crumpler became the first African-American woman to earn a medical degree.
Rebecca J. Cole was the second African-American woman to earn a medical degree in the United States.
Eliza Ann Grier was the first African-American woman to practice medicine in the state of Georgia.
Sophia B. Jones was a Canadian-born American medical doctor, who founded the nursing program at Spelman College. She was the first black woman to graduate from the University of Michigan Medical School and the first black faculty member at Spelman.