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Libertarianism in the United States

Libertarianism in the United States is a political movement promoting individual liberty and minimized government.[1][2] As a political philosophy, it has been described as upholding liberty, especially individual liberty, as a core principle and primary political value.[3]

Although the word libertarian continues to be widely used to refer to anti-state socialists internationally,[4][5][6][7][8][9] its meaning in the United States has deviated from its political origins to the extent that the common meaning of libertarian in the United States is different from elsewhere.[10][11][12][13][14] As an example, the Libertarian Party asserts the following to be core beliefs of libertarianism:

Libertarians support maximum liberty in both personal and economic matters. They advocate a much smaller government; one that is limited to protecting individuals from coercion and violence. Libertarians tend to embrace individual responsibility, oppose government bureaucracy and taxes, promote private charity, tolerate diverse lifestyles, support the free market, and defend civil liberties.[15][16]

Some libertarians are present within the Libertarian, Republican (see Libertarian Republicans) and Democratic (see Libertarian Democrats) parties while others are independent. Through twenty polls on this topic spanning thirteen years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 17–23% of the American electorate.[17]

History

In the 19th century, key libertarian thinkers were based in the United States, most notably individualist anarchists Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker. These political thinkers argued that government should be kept to a minimum and that it is only legitimate to the extent that people voluntarily support it as in Spooner's No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority. American writers Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson advocated for individualism and even anarchism throughout that century, leaving a significant imprint on libertarianism in the United States.[citation needed]

Moving into the 20th century, libertarianism developed as many with Old Right or classical liberal beliefs began to describe themselves as libertarians.[18] Important American writers such as Rose Wilder Lane, H. L. Mencken, Albert Jay Nock, Isabel Paterson, Leonard Read (the founder of the Foundation for Economic Education) and the European immigrants Ludwig von Mises and Ayn Rand carried on the intellectual libertarian tradition. In fiction, one can cite the work of the science fiction author Robert A. Heinlein, whose writing carried libertarian underpinnings. Mencken and Nock were the first prominent figures in the United States to privately call themselves libertarians.[19][20][21] They believed Franklin D. Roosevelt had co-opted the word liberal for his New Deal policies which they opposed and used libertarian to signify their allegiance to individualism. In 1923, Mencken wrote: "My literary theory, like my politics, is based chiefly upon one idea, to wit, the idea of freedom. I am, in belief, a libertarian of the most extreme variety".[22]

As of the mid-20th century, no word was used to describe the ideological outlook of this group of thinkers. Most of them would have described themselves as liberals before the New Deal, but by the mid-1930s that word had been widely used to mean social liberalism.[23] The term liberal had ceased to refer to the support of individual rights and minimal government and instead came to denote left-leaning ideas that would be seen elsewhere as social democratic. American advocates of freedom bemoaned the loss of the word and cast about for others to replace it.[23] The word conservative (later associated with libertarianism either through fiscal conservatism or through fusionism) had yet to emerge as Russell Kirk's The Conservative Mind was not published until 1953 and this work hardly mentioned economics at all.[23]

In August 1953, Max Eastman proposed the terms New Liberalism and liberal conservative which were not eventually accepted.[23][24] In May 1955, the term libertarianism was first publicly used in the United States as a synonym for classical liberalism when writer Dean Russell (1915–1998), a colleague of Leonard Read and a classical liberal himself, proposed the libertarian solution and justified the choice of the word as follows:

Subsequently, a growing number of Americans with classical liberal beliefs in the United States began to describe themselves as libertarian. The person most responsible for popularizing the term libertarian was Murray Rothbard, who started publishing libertarian works in the 1960s.[25] Before the 1950s, H. L. Mencken and Albert Jay Nock had been the first prominent figures in the United States to privately call themselves libertarians.[19][20][21] However, their non-public use of the term went largely unnoticed and the term lay dormant on the American scene for the following few decades.[23] In the 1950s, Russian-American novelist Ayn Rand developed a philosophical system called Objectivism, expressed in her novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged as well as other works, which influenced many libertarians.[26] However, she rejected the label libertarian and harshly denounced the libertarian movement as the "hippies of the right".[27][28] Philosopher John Hospers, a one-time member of Rand's inner circle, proposed a non-initiation of force principle to unite both groups—this statement later became a required pledge for candidates of the Libertarian Party and Hospers himself became its first presidential candidate in 1972.[29][30] Rothbard was influenced by the work of the 19th-century American individualist anarchists, themselves influenced by classical liberalism.[31] However, Rothbard thought they had a faulty understanding of economics because they accepted the labor theory of value as influenced by the classical economists while he was a student of neoclassical economics and supported the subjective theory of value. Rothbard sought to meld 19th-century American individualists' advocacy of free markets and private defense with the principles of Austrian economics, arguing: "There is, in the body of thought known as 'Austrian economics,' a scientific explanation of the workings of the free market (and of the consequences of government intervention in that market) which individualist anarchists could easily incorporate into their political and social Weltanschauung".[32]

Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater's libertarian-oriented challenge to authority had a major impact on the libertarian movement[33] through his book The Conscience of a Conservative and his 1964 run for President.[34] Goldwater's speech writer Karl Hess became a leading libertarian writer and activist.[35] The Vietnam War split the uneasy alliance between growing numbers of self-identified libertarians and traditionalist conservatives who believed in limiting liberty to uphold moral virtues. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements and organizations such as Students for a Democratic Society. They began founding their own publications like Rothbard's The Libertarian Forum[36][37] and organizations like the Radical Libertarian Alliance.[38] The split was aggravated at the 1969 Young Americans for Freedom convention when more than 300 libertarians coordinated to take control of the organization from conservatives. The burning of a draft card in protest to a conservative proposal against draft resistance sparked physical confrontations among convention attendees, a walkout by a large number of libertarians, the creation of libertarian organizations like the Society for Individual Liberty and efforts to recruit potential libertarians from conservative organizations.[39] The split was finalized in 1971 when conservative leader William F. Buckley Jr. attempted to divorce libertarianism from the movement, writing in a New York Times article as follows: "The ideological licentiousness that rages through America today makes anarchy attractive to the simple-minded. Even to the ingeniously simple-minded".[40]

As a result, a small group of Americans led by David Nolan and a few friends formed the Libertarian Party in 1971.[41] Attracting former Democrats, Republicans and independents, it has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972. Over the years, dozens of libertarian political parties have been formed worldwide. Educational organizations like the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute were formed in the 1970s and others have been created since then.[42] Philosophical libertarianism gained a significant measure of recognition in academia with the publication in 1974 of Harvard University professor Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia, a response to John Rawls's A Theory of Justice (1971). The book proposed a minimal state on the grounds that it was an inevitable phenomenon which could arise without violating individual rights. The book won a National Book Award in 1975.[43][44] According to libertarian essayist Roy Childs, "Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia single-handedly established the legitimacy of libertarianism as a political theory in the world of academia".[45] British historians Emily Robinson, Camilla Schofield, Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite and Natalie Thomlinson have argued that by the 1970s Britons were keen about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. They demanded greater personal autonomy and self-determination and less outside control. They angrily complained that the establishment was withholding it. They argue this shift in concerns helped cause Thatcherism and was incorporated into Thatcherism's appeal.[46] Since the resurgence of neoliberalism in the 1970s, this form of libertarianism has spread beyond North America and Europe, having been more successful at spreading worldwide than other conservative ideas.[47] For instance, it has been noted that "[m]ost parties of the Right [today] are run by economically liberal conservatives who, in varying degrees, have marginalized social, cultural, and national conservatives".[48]

Academics as well as proponents of the capitalist free-market perspectives note that libertarianism has spread beyond the United States since the 1970s via think tanks and political parties[49][50] and that libertarianism is increasingly viewed as a capitalist free-market position.[51][52] However, libertarian intellectuals Noam Chomsky,[8] Colin Ward[9] and others argue that the term libertarianism is considered a synonym for anarchism and libertarian socialism by the international community and that the United States is unique in widely associating it with capitalist free-market ideology.[6][7][13][14] The use of the word libertarian to describe a left-wing position has been traced to the French cognate libertaire, coined in a letter French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque wrote to Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1857.[10][12][13][14][53] While in New York, Déjacque was able to serialize his book L'Humanisphère, Utopie anarchique (The Humanisphere: Anarchic Utopia) in his periodical Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social (Libertarian: Journal of Social Movement), published in 27 issues from June 9, 1858 to February 4, 1861.[13][14][54][55] Although modern libertarianism in the United States mainly refers to classical and economic liberalism,[56][57] supporting capitalist free-market approaches as well as neoliberal policies and economic liberalization reforms such as austerity, deregulation, free trade, privatization and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society, with the term libertariansm being generally used to refer to right-libertarianism, the most popular conception of libertarianism in the United States today,[58][59] which is unlike the common meaning[8][9][60] of libertarianism elsewhere,[6][7][10][12] the term itself was first used in the United States by Déjacque himself and his Le Libertaire was the first libertarian communist journal published in the United States as well as the first anarchist journal to use the term libertarian.[13][14]

In the 21st century, libertarian groups have been successful in advocating tax cuts and regulatory reform. While some argue that the American public as a whole shifted away from libertarianism following the fall of the Soviet Union, citing the success of multinational organizations such as NAFTA and the increasingly interdependent global financial system,[61] others argue that libertarian ideas have moved so far into the mainstream that many Americans who do not identify as libertarian now hold libertarian views.[62] Texas Congressman Ron Paul's 2008 and 2012 campaigns for the Republican Party presidential nomination were largely libertarian.[63] Along with Goldwater and others, Paul popularized laissez-faire economics and libertarian rhetoric in opposition to interventionism and worked to pass some reforms. Likewise, California Governor and future President of the United States Ronald Reagan appealed to cultural conservative libertarians due its social conservatism and in a 1975 interview with Reason stated: "I believe the very heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism".[64] However, many libertarians are ambivalent about Reagan's legacy as President due its social conservatism and how the Reagan administration turned the United States' big trade deficit into debt, making the United States a debtor nation for the first time since World War I.[65][66]

Ron Paul was affiliated with the libertarian-leaning Republican Liberty Caucus[67] and founded the Campaign for Liberty, a libertarian-leaning membership and lobbying organization.[68] His son Rand Paul is a Senator who continues the tradition, albeit more moderately as he has described himself as a constitutional conservative[69] and has both embraced[70] and rejected libertarianism.[71] Since 2012, former New Mexico Governor and two-time Libertarian Party presidential nominee Gary Johnson has been one of the public faces of the libertarian movement in the United States. While some political commentators have described Senator Rand Paul and Congressman Thomas Massie of Kentucky as Republican libertarians or libertarian-leaning,[70][72] both Republican legislators prefer to identify as constitutional conservatives.[69][71] Currently, the only federal officeholder openly professing libertarianism is Congressman Justin Amash, who represents Michigan's 3rd congressional district since January 2011.[73][74][75][76] Initially elected to Congress as a Republican,[77] Amash left the Republican Party and became an independent in July 2019.[78]

Current developments

The Gadsden flag has been associated as a symbol of libertarianism in the 2010s

As was true historically, there are far more libertarians in the United States than those who belong to the party touting that name. In the United States, libertarians may emphasize economic and constitutional rather than religious and personal policies, or personal and international rather than economic policies[79] such as the Tea Party movement (founded in 2009) which has become a major outlet for Libertarian Republican ideas,[80][81] especially rigorous adherence to the Constitution, lower taxes and an opposition to a growing role for the federal government in health care. However, polls show that many people who identify as Tea Party members do not hold traditional libertarian views on most social issues and tend to poll similarly to socially conservative Republicans.[82][83][84] During the 2016 presidential election, many Tea Party members eventually abandoned more libertarian-leaning views in favor of Donald Trump and his right-wing populism.[85] Additionally, the Tea Party was considered to be a key force in Republicans reclaiming control of the House of Representatives in 2010.[86]

Circa 2006 polls find that the views and voting habits of between 10 and 20 percent (increasing) of voting age Americans may be classified as "fiscally conservative and socially liberal, or libertarian".[87][88] This is based on pollsters and researchers defining libertarian views as fiscally conservative and culturally liberal (based on the common United States meanings of the terms) and against government intervention in economic affairs and for expansion of personal freedoms.[87] Through 20 polls on this topic spanning 13 years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 17–23% of the electorate.[17] While libertarians make up a larger portion of the electorate than the much-discussed "soccer moms" and "NASCAR dads", this is not widely recognized as most of these vote for Republican and Democratic Party candidates, leading some libertarians to believe that dividing people's political leanings into "conservative", "liberal" and "confused" is not valid.[89]

A Libertarian Party revision of the Gadsen flag

The 2016 Libertarian National Convention which saw Gary Johnson and Bill Weld nominated as the 2016 presidential ticket for the Libertarian Party resulted in the most successful result for a third-party presidential candidacy since 1996 and the best in the Libertarian Party's history by vote number. Johnson received 3% of the popular vote, amounting to more than 4.3 million votes.[90] Johnson has expressed a desire to win at least 5% of the vote so that the Libertarian Party candidates could get equal ballot access and federal funding, ending the two-party system.[91][92][93]

Tendencies

Libertarian tendencies in the United States include left-libertarian tendecies[94][95][96] such as agorism,[97][98][99][100] geolibertarianism,[101][102][103] left-wing laissez-faire,[104][105][106][107][108] left-wing market anarchism,[109] mutualism,[110][111] neoclassical liberalism,[112][113][114][112][115][116] neo-libertarianism[117][118][119] and Steiner–Vallentyne left-libertarianism[120][121][122][123][124] and right-libertarian tendencies such as anarcho-capitalism,[125][126][127][128][129][130] classical liberalism,[131][132][133][134] conservative libertarianism,[135][136][137] fusionism,[138][139] neoliberalism,[140][141] Objectivism,[142][143] neolibertarianism,[144][145] paleolibertarianism[146][147] and propertarianism.[148][149]

Other tendencies include Austro-libertarianism,[150][151][152] autarchism,[153] Christian libertarianism,[154] consequentialist libertarianism,[155][156][157][158][159][160][161] constitutionalism,[162] green libertarianism,[163] libertarian feminism,[164][165] libertarian paternalism,[166][167][168] libertarian transhumanism,[169][170][171][172][173] minarchism,[174][175][176][177][178][179] natural-rights libertarianism,[156][180][181][182] panarchism[183][184][185][186] and voluntaryism.[187]

Classical libertarian tendencies are mainly related to libertarian socialism and anarchist schools of thought such as social and individualist anarchism, including American individualist anarchists such as Benjamin Tucker,[188][189][190] Lysander Spooner,[191] Stephen Pearl Andrews and William Batchelder Greene, among others.[13][14][192][193] Although the word libertarian was first used in the United States by the French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque,[13] who also coined the word in the political sense as well,[10][12][53] the United States is unique in that in the rest of the world[6][7][8][9] it is mainly used to refer to anarchism and libertarian socialism.[10][12][13] As a result, classical libertarians and critics such as Murray Bookchin[5] argue that this should be resisted, that anarchists, libertarian socialists and the left should reclaim libertarianism as a term and suggesting these other self-declared libertarians rename themselves propertarians instead.[13][14]

Symbolism

Yellow has been used as a political color for libertarianism in the United States.[194] The Gadsden flag, a symbol first used by American revolutionaries, is a symbol frequently used by libertarians, including the Tea Party movement.[195][196][197]

Organizations

Well-known libertarian organizations include the Center for Libertarian Studies, the Cato Institute, the Foundation for Economic Education, the Reason Foundation, Liberty International and the Mises Institute. The Libertarian Party is the world's first such party. The Alliance of the Libertarian Left is a left-libertarian organization including agorists, geolibertarians, green libertarians, left-Rothbardians, minarchists, mutualists and voluntaryists, among others. The Center for a Stateless Society is another left-libertarian organization.

The Free State Project, an activist movement formed in 2001, is working to bring libertarians to the state of New Hampshire to protect and advance liberty. As of July 2018, the project website shows that 23,778 people have pledged to move within 5 years and 4,352 people identify as Free Staters in New Hampshire.[198] Less successful similar projects include the Free West Alliance and Free State Wyoming.

Mises Institute

The Mises Institute is a tax-exempt, libertarian educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama.[199] Named after Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises, its website states that it exists to promote "teaching and research in the Austrian school of economics, and individual freedom, honest history, and international peace, in the tradition of Ludwig von Mises and Murray N. Rothbard".[200]

The Mises Institute was founded in 1982 by Lew Rockwell, Burton Blumert and Murray Rothbard following a split between the Cato Institute and Rothbard, who had been one of the founders of the Cato Institute.[201] Additional backing for the founding of the Mises Institute came from Mises's wife Margit von Mises, Henry Hazlitt, Lawrence Fertig and Nobel Economics Laureate Friedrich Hayek.[202][203] Through its publications, the Mises Institute promotes libertarian and anarcho-capitalist political theories and a form of heterodox economics known as praxeology ("the logic of action").[204][205]

Cato Institute

Cato Institute building in Washington, D.C.

The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard and Charles Koch,[206] chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries, the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States.[207] In July 1976, the name was changed to the Cato Institute.[206][208] The Cato Institute was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence.[209] According to the 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), the Cato Institute is number 16 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 8 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".[210] The Cato Institute also topped the 2014 list of the budget-adjusted ranking of international development think tanks.[211]

Center for Libertarian Studies

The Center for Libertarian Studies (CLS) was a libertarian educational organization founded in 1976 by Murray Rothbard and Burton Blumert which grew out of the Libertarian Scholars Conferences. The CLC published the Journal of Libertarian Studies from 1977 to 2000 (now published by the Mises Institute), a newsletter (In Pursuit of Liberty), several monographs and sponsors conferences, seminars and symposia. Originally headquartered in New York, it later moved to Burlingame, California. Until 2007, it supported LewRockwell.com, web publication of CLS vice president Lew Rockwell. The CLS had also previously supported Antiwar.com.

People

Intellectual sources

Politicians

Political commentators

Contention over placement on the political spectrum

The Nolan Chart, a political spectrum diagram created by libertarian activist David Nolan

Corey Robin describes libertarianism as fundamentally a conservative ideology united with more traditionalist conservative thought and goals by a desire to retain hierarchies and traditional social relations.[212] Others also describe libertarianism as a reactionary ideology for its support of laissez-faire capitalism and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.[213]

In the 1960s, Rothbard started the publication Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought, believing that the left–right political spectrum had gone "entirely askew" since conservatives were sometimes more statist than liberals. Rothbard tried to reach out to leftists.[214] In 1971, Rothbard wrote about his view of libertarianism which he described as supporting self-ownership, property rights and free trade.[215] He would later describe his brand of libertarianism as anarcho-capitalism.[216][217]

Anthony Gregory points out that within the libertarian movement "just as the general concepts 'left' and 'right' are riddled with obfuscation and imprecision, left- and right-libertarianism can refer to any number of varying and at times mutually exclusive political orientations". He writes that one of several ways to look at right-libertarianism is its interest in economic freedom, preference for a conservative lifestyle, view that private business is "a great victim of the state", favoring a non-interventionist foreign policy sharing the Old Right's "opposition to empire". Some pro-property libertarians reject association with either the right or the left. Leonard E. Read wrote an article titled "Neither Left Nor Right: Libertarians Are Above Authoritarian Degradation".[218] Harry Browne wrote: "We should never define Libertarian positions in terms coined by liberals or conservatives—nor as some variant of their positions. We are not fiscally conservative and socially liberal. We are Libertarians, who believe in individual liberty and personal responsibility on all issues at all times".[219]

Tibor R. Machan titled a book of his collected columns Neither Left Nor Right.[220] Walter Block's article "Libertarianism Is Unique and Belongs Neither to the Right Nor the Left" critiques libertarians he described as left and right, the latter including Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Edward Feser and Ron Paul. Block wrote that these left and right individuals agreed with certain libertarian premises, but "where we differ is in terms of the logical implications of these founding axioms".[221]

Libertarianism and Objectivism

Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand. Rand first expressed Objectivism in her fiction, most notably We the Living (1936), The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957), but also in later non-fiction essays and books such as The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) and Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal (1966), among others.[222] Leonard Peikoff, a professional philosopher and Rand's designated intellectual heir,[223][224] later gave it a more formal structure. Rand described Objectivism as "the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute".[225] Peikoff characterizes Objectivism as a "closed system" that is not subject to change.[226]

Objectivism's central tenets are that reality exists independently of consciousness, that human beings have direct contact with reality through sense perception, that one can attain objective knowledge from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive logic, that the proper moral purpose of one's life is the pursuit of one's own happiness, that the only social system consistent with this morality is one that displays full respect for individual rights embodied in laissez-faire capitalism and that the role of art in human life is to transform humans' metaphysical ideas by selective reproduction of reality into a physical form—a work of art—that one can comprehend and to which one can respond emotionally. The Objectivist movement founded by Rand attempts to spread her ideas to the public and in academic settings.[227] As a result, Objectivism has been and continues to be a major influence on the libertarian movement. Many libertarians justify their political views using aspects of Objectivism.[228][229]

However, the views of Rand and her philosophy among prominent libertarians are mixed and many Objectivists are hostile to libertarians in general.[230] Nonetheless, Objectivists such as David Kelley and his Atlas Society have argued that Objectivism is an "open system" and are more open to libertarians.[231][232] Although academic philosophers have mostly ignored or rejected Rand's philosophy, Objectivism has been a significant influence among conservatives and libertarians in the United States.[233][234]

Criticism

Criticism of libertarianism includes ethical, economic, environmental, pragmatic and philosophical concerns, although they are mainly related to right-libertarianism, including the view that it has no explicit theory of liberty.[59] For instance, it has been argued that laissez-faire capitalism does not necessarily produce the best or most efficient outcome,[235] nor does its philosophy of individualism and policies of deregulation prevent the abuse of natural resources.[236]

Michael Lind has observed that of the 195 countries in the world today, none have fully actualized a society as advocated by libertarians, arguing: "If libertarianism was a good idea, wouldn't at least one country have tried it? Wouldn't there be at least one country, out of nearly two hundred, with minimal government, free trade, open borders, decriminalized drugs, no welfare state and no public education system?"[237] Furthermore, Lind has criticized libertarianism as being incompatible with democracy and apologetic towards autocracy.[238] In response, libertarian Warren Redlich argues that the United States "was extremely libertarian from the founding until 1860, and still very libertarian until roughly 1930".[239]

According to Nancy MacLean, libertarian-leaning Charles and David Koch have used anonymous, dark money campaign contributions, a network of libertarian institutes and lobbying for the appointment of libertarian, pro-business judges to United States federal and state courts to oppose taxes, public education, employee protection laws, environmental protection laws and the New Deal Social Security program.[240]

See also

References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of libertarianism
  2. ^ For philosophical literature describing the variations of libertarianism, see:
    • Bevir, Mark. Encyclopedia of Political Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2010. page 811;
    • Vallentyne, Peter (March 3, 2009). "Libertarianism". In Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved March 5, 2010. in addition to the better-known version of libertarianism—right-libertarianism—there is also a version known as 'left-libertarianism';
    • Christiano, Thomas, and John P. Christman. Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy. Contemporary debates in philosophy, 11. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. p. 121;
    • Lawrence C. Becker, Charlotte B. Becker. Encyclopedia of ethics, Volume 3 Encyclopedia of Ethics, Charlotte B. Becker, page 1562;
    • Paul, Ellen F. Liberalism: Old and New. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007. p. 187; and
    • Sapon, Vladimir; Robino, Sam (2010). "Right and Left Wings in Libertarianism". Canadian Social Science. 5 (6).
    • Roderick T. Long, "Towards a Libertarian Theory of Class," Social Philosophy and Policy 15:2 1998, 303–349: pp. 304–308. (online: Part 1, part 2).
  3. ^ Boaz, David (30 January 2009). "Libertarianism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 February 2017. [L]ibertarianism, political philosophy that takes individual liberty to be the primary political value.
  4. ^ Rothbard, Murray (2009) [1970s]. The Betrayal of the American Right (PDF). Mises Institute. ISBN 978-1610165013. One gratifying aspect of our rise to some prominence is that, for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy. 'Libertarians' had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over.
  5. ^ a b Bookchin, Murray (January 1986). "The Greening of Politics: Toward a New Kind of Political Practice". Green Perspectives: Newsletter of the Green Program Project (1). "We have permitted cynical political reactionaries and the spokesmen of large corporations to pre-empt these basic libertarian American ideals. We have permitted them not only to become the specious voice of these ideals such that individualism has been used to justify egotism; the pursuit of happiness to justify greed, and even our emphasis on local and regional autonomy has been used to justify parochialism, insularism, and exclusivity – often against ethnic minorities and so-called deviant individuals. We have even permitted these reactionaries to stake out a claim to the word libertarian, a word, in fact, that was literally devised in the 1890s in France by Elisée Reclus as a substitute for the word anarchist, which the government had rendered an illegal expression for identifying one's views. The propertarians, in effect – acolytes of Ayn Rand, the earth mother of greed, egotism, and the virtues of property – have appropriated expressions and traditions that should have been expressed by radicals but were willfully neglected because of the lure of European and Asian traditions of socialism, socialisms that are now entering into decline in the very countries in which they originated".
  6. ^ a b c d Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism. London: Freedom Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9. OCLC 37529250.
  7. ^ a b c d Fernandez, Frank (2001). Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement. Sharp Press. p. 9. "Thus, in the United States, the once exceedingly useful term "libertarian" has been hijacked by egotists who are in fact enemies of liberty in the full sense of the word."
  8. ^ a b c d "The Week Online Interviews Chomsky". Z Magazine. February 23, 2002. "The term libertarian as used in the US means something quite different from what it meant historically and still means in the rest of the world. Historically, the libertarian movement has been the anti-statist wing of the socialist movement. In the US, which is a society much more dominated by business, the term has a different meaning. It means eliminating or reducing state controls, mainly controls over private tyrannies. Libertarians in the US don't say let's get rid of corporations. It is a sort of ultra-rightism."
  9. ^ a b c d Ward, Colin (2004). Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers."
  10. ^ a b c d e Robert Graham, ed. (2005). Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300 CE–1939). Montreal: Black Rose Books. §17.
  11. ^ Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism' and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
  12. ^ a b c d e Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. p. 641. "The word 'libertarian' has long been associated with anarchism, and has been used repeatedly throughout this work. The term originally denoted a person who upheld the doctrine of the freedom of the will; in this sense, Godwin was not a 'libertarian', but a 'necessitarian'. It came however to be applied to anyone who approved of liberty in general. In anarchist circles, it was first used by Joseph Déjacque as the title of his anarchist journal Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social published in New York in 1858. At the end of the last century, the anarchist Sebastien Faure took up the word, to stress the difference between anarchists and authoritarian socialists".
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i "150 years of Libertarian".
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "160 years of Libertarian".
  15. ^ "Libertarian Party 2010 Platform". Libertarian Party. May 2010. p. 1. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  16. ^ Watts, Duncan (16 March 2006). Understanding American government and politics: a guide for A2 politics students (2nd Revised ed.). Manchester University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-7190-7327-4.
  17. ^ a b Gallup Poll news release, September 7–10, 2006.
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  28. ^ Rand, Ayn (1981). "The Age of Mediocrity". FHF 81. In Mayhew, Robert (2005). Ayn Rand Answers: The Best of Her Q & A. "[L]ibertarians are a monstrous, disgusting bunch of people: they plagiarize my ideas when that fits their purpose, and denounce me in a more vicious manner than any communist publication when that fits their purpose".
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  31. ^ DeLeon 1978, p. 127. "[O]nly a few individuals like Murray Rothbard, in Power and Market, and some article writers were influenced by [past anarchists like Spooner and Tucker]. Most had not evolved consciously from this tradition; they had been a rather automatic product of the American environment".
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  55. ^ Woodcock, George (1962). Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Meridian Books. p. 280. "He called himself a "social poet," and published two volumes of heavily didactic verse—Lazaréennes and Les Pyrénées Nivelées. In New York, from 1858 to 1861, he edited an anarchist paper entitled Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social, in whose pages he printed as a serial his vision of the anarchist Utopia, entitled L'Humanisphére."
  56. ^ Boaz, David (1998). Libertarianism: A Primer. Free Press. pp. 22–26.
  57. ^ Conway, David (2008). "Freedom of Speech". In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). Liberalism, Classical. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications; Cato Institute. pp. 295–298, quote at p. 296. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n112. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024. Depending on the context, libertarianism can be seen as either the contemporary name for classical liberalism, adopted to avoid confusion in those countries where liberalism is widely understood to denote advocacy of expansive government powers, or as a more radical version of classical liberalism.
  58. ^ Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: Sage Publications. p. 1007. ISBN 1412988764.
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  60. ^ Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism' and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
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  71. ^ a b Newton-Small, Jay (March 17, 2010). "Is Rand Paul Good or Bad for Republicans?". Time. Retrieved March 30, 2014. They thought all along that they could call me a libertarian and hang that label around my neck like an albatross, but I'm not a libertarian.
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  73. ^ Andrews, Wilson; Bloch, Matthew; Park, Haeyoun (March 24, 2017). "Who Stopped the Republican Health Bill?". The New York Times. 15 were hard-line conservatives who wanted a complete repeal of the Affordable Care Act. They are all members of the House Freedom Caucus, who are among the most conservative members of the House [...] Justin Amash, MI-3 [...].
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  93. ^ William Maxwell; Ernest Crain; Adolfo Santos (2013). Texas Politics Today, 2013–2014 Edition. p. 121.
  94. ^ Kymlicka, Will (2005). "libertarianism, left-". In Honderich, Ted. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 516. ISBN 978-0199264797. "'Left-libertarianism' is a new term for an old conception of justice, dating back to Grotius. It combines the libertarian assumption that each person possesses a natural right of self-ownership over his person with the egalitarian premiss that natural resources should be shared equally. Right-wing libertarians argue that the right of self-ownership entails the right to appropriate unequal parts of the external world, such as unequal amounts of land. According to left-libertarians, however, the world's natural resources were initially unowned, or belonged equally to all, and it is illegitimate for anyone to claim exclusive private ownership of these resources to the detriment of others. Such private appropriation is legitimate only if everyone can appropriate an equal amount, or if those who appropriate more are taxed to compensate those who are thereby excluded from what was once common property. Historic proponents of this view include Thomas Paine, Herbert Spencer, and Henry George. Recent exponents include Philippe Van Parijs and Hillel Steiner."
  95. ^ "Anarchism". In Gaus, Gerald F.; D'Agostino, Fred, eds. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy. p. 227.
  96. ^ Carson, Kevin (15 June 2014). "What is Left-Libertarianism?". Center for a Stateless Society.
  97. ^ "Smashing the State for Fun and Profit Since 1969: An Interview With the Libertarian Icon Samuel Edward Konkin III (a.k.a. SEK3)".
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  104. ^ Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia
  105. ^ "It introduces an eye-opening approach to radical social thought, rooted equally in libertarian socialism and market anarchism." Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. p. back cover.
  106. ^ "But there has always been a market-oriented strand of libertarian socialism that emphasizes voluntary cooperation between producers. And markets, properly understood, have always been about cooperation. As a commenter at Reason magazine's Hit&Run blog, remarking on Jesse Walker's link to the Kelly article, put it: "every trade is a cooperative act." In fact, it's a fairly common observation among market anarchists that genuinely free markets have the most legitimate claim to the label "socialism." "Socialism: A Perfectly Good Word Rehabilitated" by Kevin Carson at website of Center for a Stateless Society.
  107. ^ Nick Manley, "Brief Introduction To Left-Wing Laissez Faire Economic Theory: Part One".
  108. ^ Nick Manley, "Brief Introduction To Left-Wing Laissez Faire Economic Theory: Part Two".
  109. ^
    • Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia.
    • "It introduces an eye-opening approach to radical social thought, rooted equally in libertarian socialism and market anarchism." Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. p. back cover.
    • "But there has always been a market-oriented strand of libertarian socialism that emphasizes voluntary cooperation between producers. And markets, properly understood, have always been about cooperation. As a commenter at Reason magazine's Hit&Run blog, remarking on Jesse Walker's link to the Kelly article, put it: “every trade is a cooperative act.” In fact, it's a fairly common observation among market anarchists that genuinely free markets have the most legitimate claim to the label “socialism.”" "Socialism: A Perfectly Good Word Rehabilitated" by Kevin Carson at website of Center for a Stateless Society.
    • Carson, Kevin A. (2008). Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
    • Carson, Kevin A. (2010). The Homebrew Industrial Revolution: A Low-Overhead Manifesto. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
    • Long, Roderick T. (2000). Reason and Value: Aristotle versus Rand. Washington, D.C.: Objectivist Center.
    • Long, Roderick T. (2008). "An Interview With Roderick Long".
    • Johnson, Charles W. (2008). "Liberty, Equality, Solidarity: Toward a Dialectical Anarchism". Anarchism/Minarchism: Is a Government Part of a Free Country?. In Long, Roderick T. and Machan, Tibor Aldershot:Ashgate pp. 155–188.
    • Spangler, Brad (September 15, 2006). "Market Anarchism as Stigmergic Socialism". Archived 10 May 2011 at Archive.today.
    • Richman, Sheldon (June 23, 2010). "Why Left-Libertarian?". The Freeman. Foundation for Economic Education.
    • Richman, Sheldon (December 18, 2009). "Workers of the World Unite for a Free Market". Archived 22 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Foundation for Economic Education.
    • Sheldon Richman (February 3, 2011). "Libertarian Left: Free-market anti-capitalism, the unknown ideal". The American Conservative. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
    • Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (2000). Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism. University Park, PA :Pennsylvania State University Press.
    • Chartier, Gary (2009). Economic Justice and Natural Law. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
    • Gillis, William (2011). "The Freed Market." In Chartier, Gary and Johnson, Charles. Markets Not Capitalism. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 19–20.
    • Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 1–16.
    • Gary Chartier and Charles W. Johnson (eds). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Minor Compositions; 1st edition (November 5, 2011).
    • Gary Chartier has joined Kevin Carson, Charles W. Johnson and others in maintaining that because of its heritage and its emancipatory goals and potential radical market anarchism should be seen by its proponents and by others as part of the socialist tradition and that market anarchists can and should call themselves socialists. See Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Oppose Capitalism," "Free-Market Anti-Capitalism?" session, annual conference, Association of Private Enterprise Education (Cæsar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, April 13, 2010); Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Embrace 'Anti-Capitalism'"; Gary Chartier, Socialist Ends, Market Means: Five Essays. Cp. Tucker, "Socialism."
    • Chris Sciabarra is the only scholar associated with this school of left-libertarianism who is skeptical about anarchism; see Sciabarra's Total Freedom.
  110. ^ "A member of a community," The Mutualist; this 1826 series criticised Robert Owen's proposals, and has been attributed to a dissident Owenite, possibly from the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests of Valley Forge; Wilbur, Shawn, 2006, "More from the 1826 "Mutualist"?".
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  115. ^ Neoclassical liberal philosophers such as David Schmidtz, Jerry Gaus, John Tomasi, Kevin Vallier, Matt Zwolinski and Jason Brennan all have a connection to the University of Arizona (cf. "On the ethics of voting". 3:AM Magazine. January 14, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2019).
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  122. ^ Related, arguably synonymous, terms include libertarianism, left-wing libertarianism, egalitarian-libertarianism and libertarian socialism.
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  125. ^ "The philosophy of "anarcho-capitalism" dreamed up by the "libertarian" New Right, has nothing to do with Anarchism as known by the Anarchist movement proper." Meltzer, Albert. Anarchism: Arguments For and Against AK Press, (2000) p. 50.
  126. ^ "In fact, few anarchists would accept the 'anarcho-capitalists' into the anarchist camp since they do not share a concern for economic equality and social justice, Their self-interested, calculating market men would be incapable of practising voluntary co-operation and mutual aid. Anarcho-capitalists, even if they do reject the State, might therefore best be called right-wing libertarians rather than anarchists." Peter Marshall. Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. Harper Perennial. London. 2008. p. 565.
  127. ^ "It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Murray Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism)." Saul Newman, The Politics of Postanarchism, Edinburgh University Press, 2010, p. 43 ISBN 0748634959.
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  129. ^ "‘Libertarian’ and ‘libertarianism’ are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for ‘anarchist’ and ‘anarchism’, largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of ‘anarchy’ and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, ‘minimal statism’ and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Murray Rothbard and Robert Nozick and their adoption of the words ‘libertarian’ and ‘libertarianism’. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition." Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward by David Goodway. Liverpool University Press. Liverpool. 2006. p. 4.
  130. ^ "Within Libertarianism, Rothbard represents a minority perspective that actually argues for the total elimination of the state. However Rothbard’s claim as an anarchist is quickly voided when it is shown that he only wants an end to the public state. In its place he allows countless private states, with each person supplying their own police force, army, and law, or else purchasing these services from capitalist venders. [...] [S]o what remains is shrill anti-statism conjoined to a vacuous freedom in hackneyed defense of capitalism. In sum, the "anarchy" of Libertarianism reduces to a liberal fraud." "Libertarianism: Bogus Anarchy" by Peter Sabatini in issue #41 (Fall/Winter 1994–95) of Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed.
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