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Liberal Party (Philippines)

Liberal Party

Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas
PresidentFrancis Pangilinan
ChairmanLeni Robredo
Secretary-GeneralJose Christopher "Kit" Belmonte
FounderManuel Roxas
Elpidio Quirino
FoundedJanuary 19, 1946; 73 years ago (1946-01-19)
Split fromNacionalista Party (opposition)
HeadquartersExpo Centro, Araneta Center, Epifanio de los Santos Avenue corner General McArthur Street, Cubao, Quezon City
Think tankCenter for Liberalism and Democracy Philippines [1]
Youth wingLiberal Youth (LY)
IdeologyLiberalism[2][3]
Social liberalism[4]
Political positionCentre[5] to centre-left[2][6]
National affiliationOtso Diretso
International affiliationLiberal International,
Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats
Colors               Yellow, red, blue
SloganBago. Bukas. Liberal.
Seats in the Senate
3 / 24
Seats in the House of Representatives
18 / 300
Provincial governorships
2 / 81
Provincial vice governorships
5 / 81
Website
www.liberal.ph

The Liberal Party of the Philippines (Filipino: Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas) or LP is a liberal[7] political party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator José Avelino, on January 19, 1946 by a breakaway Liberal wing from the old Nacionalista Party. It was the ruling party from 2010 to 2016 after the election victory of Benigno Aquino III as the President of the Philippines. The Liberals lost control in the 2016 presidential election and became the leading opposition party. As of the 2019 midterm elections, the Liberals is still the primary opposition party and hold only three seats in the Senate, 18 seats in the House of Representatives, two provincial governorships, and five vice governorships.

The Liberal Party is the second oldest extant political party in the Philippines in terms of date of establishment, and the oldest continually-active[clarification needed] political party in the Philippines. The party has been led by liberal thinkers and pro-development[clarification needed] politicians like Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino, Diosdado Macapagal, Gerry Roxas, Benigno Aquino, Jr., Jovito Salonga, Raul Daza, Florencio B. Abad Jr., Franklin Drilon, Mar Roxas, and Benigno Aquino III. Two of its members, Corazon Aquino and Leila de Lima, have received the prestigious Prize for Freedom, the highest international award for liberal and democratic politicians since 1985.[importance?]

History

Liberal Party logo during the term of President Noynoy Aquino, 2010-2016

1946–1972: Third Republic

The Liberal Party was founded on January 19, 1946 by Manuel Roxas,[8][2] the first President of the Third Philippine Republic.[8] It was formed by Roxas from what was once the "Liberal Wing" of the Nacionalista Party.[8] Two more Presidents of the Philippines elected into office came from the LP: Elpidio Quirino and Diosdado Macapagal.[9][10] Two other presidents came from the ranks of the LP, as former members of the party who later joined the Nacionalistas: Ramon Magsaysay and Ferdinand Marcos.[11]

1972–1986: Martial law era

During the days leading to his declaration of martial law, Marcos would find his old party as a potent roadblock to his quest for one-man rule. Led by Ninoy Aquino, Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, the LP would hound President Marcos on issues like human rights and the curtailment of freedoms. Not even Marcos' declaration of martial law silenced the LP, and the party continued to fight the dictatorship despite the costs. Many of its leaders and members would be prosecuted and even killed during this time.[unbalanced opinion?][2][8]

1986–2010: Post-EDSA

The LP was instrumental in ending more than half a century of US military presence in the Philippines with its campaign in the Philippine Senate of 1991 to reject a new RP-US Bases Treaty. This ironically cost the party dearly, losing for it the elections of 1992. In 2000, it stood against the corruption of the Joseph Estrada government, actively supporting the Resign-Impeach-Oust initiatives that led to People Power II.[2][8]

In 2006, the Philippines' ruling political party, Lakas-CMD, with President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo serving as its supremo, was influential in "hijacking" the Liberal Party by way of overthrowing the party presidency of Sen. Franklin Drilon at a rump party meeting at the Manila Hotel. With the marching orders and blessing of Lakas, LP members sympathetic to the Arroyo government used the meeting on March 2 to install Manila Mayor Lito Atienza as the party president, thus triggering an LP leadership struggle and party schism.[unbalanced opinion?] Days later, the Supreme Court proclaimed Drilon the true president of the party, leaving the Atienza wing expelled.[2][8]

2010–2016: The Benigno Aquino III administration

The Liberal Party regained influence in 2010 when it nominated as its next presidential candidate then-Senator Benigno Aquino III,[8] the son of former President Corazon Aquino, after the latter's death that subsequently showed a massive outpouring of sympathy for the Aquino family. Even though the party had earlier nominated Sen. Manuel "Mar" Roxas II to be its presidential candidate for the 2010 Philippine general election, Roxas gave way to Aquino and instead ran for vice president. During the fierce campaign battle that followed, the party was able to field new members breaking away from the then-ruling party Lakas Kampi CMD to become the largest minority party in Congress.[2][8][6]

2016–present

In 2016 presidential elections, Liberal Party nominated Mar Roxas, former DOTC and DILG secretary and Leni Robredo, a Representative from Naga City and widow of former DILG secretary Jessie Robredo. The latter won and the former lost.[clarification needed] Most of their members either switched allegiance to PDP-Laban, joined a supermajority alliance but retained LP membership (with some defected later),[incomprehensible][12][13][14] joined minority, or created an opposition bloc called "Magnificent 7".

As early as February, 2017, the leaders of the Liberal Party chose to focus on rebuilding the party by inviting sectoral membership of non-politicians.[15] The party has been inducting new members who are non-politicians since then, some of whom applied online through the party's website, Liberal.ph.[16][17][18] Before the scheduled 2019 general elections, the LP formed the Oposisyon Koalisyon (Opposition Coalition or OK), an electoral coalition led by the party that also comprises members of the Magdalo Party-List, Akbayan Citizens Action Party, and Aksyon Demokratiko along with independent candidates.[19][20][21] The coalition hopes to drive a new political culture based on political leaders practicing "makiking, matuto, kumilos" (listen, learn, take action), each candidate emphasizing the need for government to listen to its citizens.[22] As part of the Liberal Party's efforts to instill this new political culture, it launched Project Makining in October 2018, a modern, nationwide listening campaign using technology and driven by volunteers.[23][non-primary source needed]

Ideology

The party currently adopts liberalism as its main ideology. According to its values charter, the self-described values of the party are "freedom, justice and solidarity (bayanihan)."[24][25][non-primary source needed]

Historically, the party's ideology during its early years was noted by some political observers to be similar to or indistinguishable from the Nacionalista Party,[26][27] until the term of Ferdinand Marcos, where it became more liberal.[28]

Current party officials

Presidents

Term in Office Name
January 19, 1946 – April 15, 1948 Manuel Roxas[8]
January 19, 1946 – May 8, 1949 José Avelino
April 17, 1948 – December 30, 1950 Elpidio Quirino
December 30, 1950 – December 30, 1957 Eugenio Pérez
December 30, 1957 – December 30, 1961 Diosdado Macapagal
December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965
May 1964 – May 10, 1969 Cornelio T. Villareal
May 10, 1969 – April 19, 1982 Gerardo Roxas
April 20, 1982 – June 1, 1993 Jovito Salonga
June 2, 1993 – October 17, 1994 Wigberto Tañada
October 18, 1994 – September 19, 1999 Raul A. Daza
September 20, 1999 – August 9, 2004 Florencio Abad
October 1, 2012 – 2016 Joseph Emilio Abaya
August 8, 2016 – May 21, 2019 Francis Pangilinan

Electoral performance

President

Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
1946 Manuel Roxas 1,333,392 54.94% Won
1949 Elpidio Quirino (Quirino wing) 1,803,808 50.93% Won
1949 José Avelino (Avelino wing) 419,890 11.85% Lost
1953 Elpidio Quirino 1,313,991 31.08% Lost
1957 José Yulo 1,386,829 27.62% Lost
1961 Diosdado Macapagal 3,554,840 55.00% Won
1965 Diosdado Macapagal 3,187,752 42.88% Lost
1969 Sergio Osmeña, Jr. 3,143,122 38.51% Lost
1981 N/A N/A N/A Boycotted
1986 N/A N/A N/A Supported Corazon Aquino who became president
1992 Jovito Salonga 2,302,123 10.16% Lost
1998 Alfredo Lim 2,344,362 8.71% Lost
2004 N/A N/A N/A Supported Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo who won
2010 Benigno Aquino III 15,208,678 42.08% Won
2016 Mar Roxas 9,978,175 23.45% Lost

Vice president

Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
1946 Elpidio Quirino 1,161,725 52.36% Won
1949 Fernando Lopez (Quirino wing) 1,341,284 52.19% Won
1949 Vicente J. Francisco (Avelino wing) 44,510 1.73% Lost
1953 José Yulo 1,483,802 37.10% Lost
1957 Diosdado Macapagal 2,189,197 46.55% Won
1961 Emmanuel Pelaez 2,394,400 37.57% Won
1965 Gerardo Roxas 3,504,826 48.12% Lost
1969 Genaro Magsaysay 2,968,526 37.54% Lost
1986 Eva Estrada-Kalaw (Kalaw wing) 662,185 3.31% Lost; main wing supported Salvador Laurel who became vice president
1992 N/A N/A N/A Supported Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. who lost
1998 Sergio Osmeña III 2,351,462 9.20% Lost
2004 N/A N/A N/A Supported Noli de Castro who won
2010 Mar Roxas 13,918,490 39.58% Lost
2016 Leni Robredo 14,418,817 35.11% Won

Senate

Election Number of votes Share of votes Seats won Seats after Outcome of election
1946 8,626,965 47.7%
8 / 16
9 / 24
Coalition
1947 12,241,929 54.5%
7 / 8
15 / 24
Won
1949 12,782,449 52.5%
7 / 8
18 / 24
Won
1951 8,764,190 39.9%
0 / 9
12 / 24
Won
1953 8,861,244 36.0%
0 / 8
7 / 24
Lost
1955 7,395,988 28.9%
0 / 9
0 / 24
Lost
1957 8,934,218 31.8%
2 / 8
2 / 24
Lost
1959 10,850,799 31.7%
2 / 8
4 / 24
Lost
1961 14,988,931 37.9%
4 / 8
8 / 24
Lost
1963 22,794,310 49.8%
4 / 8
10 / 24
Won
1965 23,158,197 46.9%
2 / 8
10 / 24
Lost
1967 18,127,926 37.1%
1 / 8
7 / 24
Lost
1969 21,060,474 39.1%
2 / 8
5 / 24
Lost
1971 33,469,677 57.4%
5 / 8
8 / 24
Lost
1987 N/A N/A N/A N/A Won under the LABAN coalition
1992* 19,158,013 6.9%
1 / 24
1 / 24
Lost
1995 N/A N/A N/A N/A Did not participate
1998 5,429,123 2.6%
0 / 12
0 / 24
Lost
2001 19,131,732 7.9%
1 / 13
1 / 24
Independent-led coalition
2004 30,008,158 12.0%
2 / 12
4 / 24
Liberal Party-led coalition
2007 28,843,415 10.7%
2 / 12
4 / 24
Nacionalista Party-led coalition
2010 78,227,817 26.34%
3 / 12
4 / 24
PMP-led coalition
2013 33,369,204 11.32%
1 / 12
4 / 24
Liberal Party-led coalition
2016 100,512,795 31.30%
5 / 12
6 / 24
Split; PDP-Laban-led coalition, lost[31]
2019 43,273,583 11.97%
0 / 12
3 / 24
Lost

*in coalition with PDP-Laban

House of Representatives

Election Number of votes Share of votes Seats Outcome of election
1946 1,129,971 47.06%
49 / 98
Won
1949 1,834,173 53.00%
66 / 100
Won
1953 1,624,571 39.81%
59 / 102
Won
1957 1,453,527 30.16%
19 / 102
Lost
1961 2,167,641 33.71%
29 / 104
Lost
1965 3,721,460 51.32%
61 / 104
Won
1969 2,641,786 41.76%
18 / 110
Lost
1978 N/A N/A N/A Boycotted; most members ran under the LABAN that lost
1984 N/A N/A N/A Boycotted; most members ran under the LABAN that lost
1987* 2,101,575 10.5%
16 / 200
Lakas ng Bansa-led coalition
1992** 1,644,568 8.8%
11 / 199
Lakas-NUCD-UMDP-led coalition
1995* 358,245 1.9%
5 / 204
Lakas-NUCD-UMDP-led coalition
1998* 1,773,124 7.3%
15 / 221
Lost
2001
19 / 219
Lakas-NUCD-UMDP-led coalition
2004
29 / 237
Lakas-CMD-led coalition
2007
23 / 271
Lakas-CMD-led coalition
2010 6,802,227 19.93%
47 / 287
Liberal Party-led coalition
2013 10,557,265 38.27%
111 / 292
Liberal Party-led coalition
2016 15,552,401 41.72%
115 / 297
Split; PDP-Laban-led coalition, lost
2019 2,321,759 5.78%
18 / 306
Lost

*does not include candidates who ran as under a Liberal Party ticket along with another party.
**in coalition with PDP-Laban

Notable members

Philippine presidents

Others

Coalition

References

  1. ^ [cld.ph]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Southeast Asia In The New International Era". 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  3. ^ Hutchcroft, P. (2016). Mindanao: The Long Journey to Peace and Prosperity Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Anvil Publishing, Inc. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  4. ^ Values Charter - Liberal Party of the Philippines
  5. ^ Timberman, David G. (September 16, 2016). A Changeless Land: Continuity and Change in Philippine Politics. Routledge. p. 237. ISBN 9781315487151. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Aquino backs interior minister Roxas to be next president". Strait Times. August 1, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  7. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions on joining Partido Liberal - Liberal Party of the Philippines". Liberal Party of the Philippines. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "'Melted?' Liberal Party meets for 71st anniversary". Rappler. January 21, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  9. ^ Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
  10. ^ "Common Man's President". Time. November 24, 1961. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  11. ^ "Ramon Magsaysay." Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.
  12. ^ "Key LP members jump ship to PDP-Laban". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  13. ^ "More LP lawmakers, local officials jump ship to admin party". cnn. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  14. ^ Avendaño, Christine O. "LP disowns Agusan del Sur execs who jumped ship to PDP-Laban". Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  15. ^ "LP rebuilding to focus on non-politicians: Robredo". ABS-CBN News. February 9, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  16. ^ "Robredo swears in new Liberal Party members in Negros Occidental". Rappler. June 15, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  17. ^ "New blood: Liberal Party welcomes 'non-politicians' into fold". Rappler. November 8, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  18. ^ "Robredo administers oath to 67 new LP members from Negros Occidental". Sun Star Bacolod. June 15, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  19. ^ "Forecasting the 2019 campaign". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  20. ^ "Strengthen human rights awareness of Filipinos, say opposition bets". Rappler. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  21. ^ "Benigno Aquino III, Leni Robredo endorse opposition Senate 12 | Philstar.com". philstar.com. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  22. ^ "Opposition is 'alive': VP Robredo launches Senate ticket". news.abs-cbn.com. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  23. ^ "FILIPINOS CROSS DIFFERENCES IN GENUINE SHARING OF STORIES THROUGH PROJECT MAKINIG". liberal.ph. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  24. ^ "LP Statement Archives - Liberal Party of the Philippines". Liberal Party of the Philippines. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  25. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions on joining Partido Liberal - Liberal Party of the Philippines". Liberal Party of the Philippines. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  26. ^ bw_mark. "The decline of Philippine political parties | BusinessWorld". Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  27. ^ Daniel B., Schimer (1987). The Philippines Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship and Resistance. South End Press. p. 150. ISBN 9780896082755.
  28. ^ "What Is Liberalism, and Why Is It Such a Dirty Word?". Esquiremag.ph. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  29. ^ a b c "Liberal Party holds 1st official meeting post-2016 elections". Rappler. August 10, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  30. ^ a b "LP appoints Baguilat, Tañada to key party posts". Liberal Party of the Philippines. August 16, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  31. ^ a b "It's final: LP completes 12-person Senate slate". Rappler. October 11, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  32. ^ "LOOK: Leni Robredo takes oath of office as Vice President of the Philippines". CNN Philippines. June 30, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.

External links