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Molar mass225.329 g/mol g·mol−1
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Lefetamine (Santenol) is a drug which is a stimulant and also an analgesic with effects comparable to codeine.

Lefetamine-related 1,2-diphenylethylamines were invented in the 1940s and showed weak analgesic activity.[1]

It was investigated in Japan in 1950s.[2] The l-isomer showed weak analgesic action comparable to codeine and antitussive action far weaker than codeine. The d-isomer showed no such activity but caused seizures in rats.[3][4]

It was abused in Japan during the 1950s. In a small study in 1989 it showed some effect against opioid withdrawal symptoms without causing withdrawal symptoms itself. It was concluded that it may be an opioid partial agonist.[5]

It has been abused in Europe, in 1989 a small study of 15 abusers and some volunteers found, that it had some partial similarity to opioids, that it produced withdrawal symptoms and had dependence and abuse potential to a certain degree.[6]

In a small study in 1994, it was compared to clonidine and buprenorphine in the detoxification of methadone patients and found to be inferior to both of them.[7]

Regulation may vary; it does not appear as either a Narcotic or Non-Narcotic under the US Controlled Substances Act 1970 [8]

The Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act was amended in 2016 to include the substance as a Schedule III substance. Possession without legal authority can result in maximum 3 years imprisonment. Further, Health Canada amended the Food and Drug Regulations in May, 2016 to classify Lefetamine as a controlled drug.[9]


Some related pyrrylphenylethanones had analgetic activity comparable to morphine.[10] Some pyrrole analogues were reported to have analgesic effects comparable to lefetamine and being devoid of neurotoxic properties.[11]

See also


  1. ^ Dodds, E. C.; Lawson, W.; Simpson, S. A.; Williams, P. C. (1945). "Testing Diphenylethylamine Compounds for Analgesic Action". The Journal of Physiology. 104 (1): 47–51. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1945.sp004105. PMC 1393527. PMID 16991666.
  2. ^ DE patent 1159958, Ogyu, K.; Fujimura H.; Yamakawa Y.; Mita I., "Verfahren zur Herstellung von antitussiv wirksamem l-1,2-Diphenyl-1-dimethylaminoaethan und dessen Salzen", issued 1963-12-27, assigned to Institut Seikatsu Kagaku Kenkyusho (Scientific Research Institute for Practical Life, Kyoto) 
  3. ^ Fujimura, H.; Kawai, K. (1961). "Pharmacological Studies on Diphenylalkylamine Derivatives. (I)" (PDF). Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University. 39 (1): 67–77.
  4. ^ Fujimura, H.; Kawai, K.; Ohata, K.; Shibata, S. (1961). "Pharmacological Studies on Diphenylalkylamine Derivatives. (II): On the Actions of l-1,2-Diphenyl-1-dimethylaminoethane Hydrochloride (SPA)" (PDF). Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University. 39 (1): 78–94.
  5. ^ Mannelli, P.; Janiri, L.; de Marinis, M.; Tempesta, E. (1989). "Lefetamine: New Abuse of an Old Drug -- Clinical Evaluation of Opioid Activity". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 24 (2): 95–101. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(89)90071-9. PMID 2571492.
  6. ^ Janiri, L.; Mannelli, P.; Pirrongelli, C.; lo Monaco, M.; Tempesta, E. (1989). "Lephetamine Abuse and Dependence: Clinical Effects and Withdrawal Syndrome". British Journal of Addiction. 84 (1): 89–95. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1989.tb00555.x. PMID 2917208.
  7. ^ Janiri, L.; Mannelli, P.; Persico, A. M.; Serretti, A.; Tempesta, E. (1994). "Opiate Detoxification of Methadone Maintenance Patients Using Lefetamine, Clonidine and Buprenorphine". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 36 (2): 139–145. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(94)90096-5. PMID 7851281.
  8. ^ "DEA Diversion Control Division".
  9. ^ Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (Parts G and J — Lefetamine, AH-7921, MT-45 and W-18)
  10. ^ Massa, S.; di Santo, R.; Mai, A.; Artico, M.; Pantaleoni, G. C.; Giorgi, R.; Coppolino, M. F. (1992). "Pyrrylphenylethanones Related to Cathinone and Lefetamine: Synthesis and Pharmacological Activities". Archiv der Pharmazie. 325 (7): 403–409. doi:10.1002/ardp.19923250707. PMID 1417455.
  11. ^ Massa, S.; Stefancich, G.; Artico, M.; Corelli, F.; Silvestri, R.; Pantaleoni, G. C.; Fanini, D.; Palumbo, G.; Giorgi, R. (1989). "Synthesis, Neuropsychopharmacological Effects and Analgesic-Antiinflammatory Activities of Pyrrole Analogues of Lefetamine". Farmaco. Societa Chimica Italiana. 44 (9): 763–777. PMID 2604832.