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The Russian political term leaderism (Russian: вождизм, vozhdism) means "a policy directed at the affirmation/confirmation of one person in the role of an indisputable or infallible leader". Vozhdism is widespread in totalitarian and authoritarian régimes. Manifestations of vozhdism include clientelism, nepotism, tribalism, and messianism.
Ancient Greek tyranny, as described in the Politics by Aristotle, represents an early form of leaderism. Forms of leaderism include Italian Fascism, Führerprinzip, Stalinism, Maoism, and Juche. According to Nikolai Berdyaev (1874-1948), Leninism represented a new type of leaderism, featuring a leader of masses having dictatorship powers. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini attempted to imitate Vladimir Lenin, while Joseph Stalin as vozhd exemplifies an ultimate type of such a Supreme leader.
Сталин уже вождь-диктатор в современном, фашистском смысле.
Sometimes local personality cults were attributed to the backwardness of the population and 'leaderism' was treated as an ethnic disease.
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