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Lakes Plain languages

Lakes Plain
Geographic
distribution
New Guinea
Linguistic classificationone of the world's primary language families
Glottologlake1255[1]

The Lakes Plain languages are a family of Papuan languages. They are notable for being heavily tonal and for their lack of nasal consonants.

Classification

The Lakes Plain languages were tentatively grouped by Stephen Wurm with the Tor languages in his Trans–New Guinea proposal. Clouse (1997) rejected this connection to the Tor languages and grouped them with the Geelvink Bay languages. Malcolm Ross classifies the languages as an independent family, a position confirmed by Timothy Usher.

Because of the apparent phonological similarities and sharing of stable basic words such as ‘louse’, William A. Foley speculates the potential likelihood of a distant relationship shared between the Skou and Lakes Plain families, but no formal proposals linking the two families have been made due to insufficient evidence.[2] Additionally according to Foley, based on some lexical and phonological similarities, the Keuw language (currently classified as a language isolate) may also possibly share a deep relationship with the Lakes Plain languages.

Like the East Cenderawasih Bay, Trans-New Guinea, and South Bougainville language families, Lakes Plain languages have ergative case marking systems. In contrast, most languages of northern Papua New Guinea have accusative case marking systems.[3]

Clouse (1997)

Clouse (1997, p. 155) internally classifies the Lakes Plain family as:[4]

Lakes Plain superstock

Clouse considers the East Geelvink Bay languages to be most closely related to the Lakes Plain languages, forming a wider Geelvink Bay phylum with it.[4]

Usher (2018)

The Lakes Plain languages as classified by Usher are as follows:[5]


Lakes Plain 
Central

Sikaritai, Eritai, Papasena

Duvle–East

Duvle

East Lakes Plain: Foau (Abawiri), Taworta (Diebroud)

 Wapoga River 

Awera

Kehu (Keuw)

Rasawa–Saponi: Rasawa, Saponi

West
Tariku

Edopi–Iau–Foi–Turu [a dialect cluster]

Fayu

Kirikiri

Tause

Not included in the above classification, Kaiy, Kwerisa, Doutai and Waritai are presumably also Central Lakes Plain; the same for Obokuitai and Biritai. Clouse had placed them closest to Papasena and to Eritai, respectively, and they might form dialect clusters with those languages.

There are particular questions about the inclusion of Saponi, Kehu and Tause.

Pronouns

The pronouns Ross reconstructs for proto-Tariku are,

I *a/*i we *a/*ai
thou *de you *da
s/he *au they ?

The corresponding "I" and "thou" pronouns are proto–East Lake Plain *a, *do, Awera yai, nai (the latter from *dai; compare also e "we"), and Rasawa e-, de-. Saponi shares no pronouns with the Lakes Plain family; indeed its pronouns mamire "I, we" and ba "thou" are remenincent of proto–East Bird's Head *meme "we" and *ba "thou". However, Saponi shares half its basic lexical vocabulary with Rasawa, and Ross left it in the Lakes Plain family pending further investigation. The Tause language was also previously grouped amongst the Tariku group of Lakes Plain languages. Ross transferred it to the East Bird's Head – Sentani languages on the basis of pronoun similarities in hopes that this would promote further research.

Phonology

Lakes Plain languages have remarkably small phonemic inventories, rivaling even those of Polynesian languages.

Consonants

Clouse and Clouse (1993) note many of the Lakes Plain languages share several unusual phonological features. While Papuan languages typically have at least two nasal phonemes, this is not the case for Lakes Plain languages. Although phonetic nasals do exist in most Lakes Plain languages, they do not contrast with the corresponding voiced stops. Doutai, Sikaritai, Obokuitai and Foau lack even phonetic nasals. Additionally, no Lakes Plain language has a liquid phoneme. Clouse (1997) reconstructs a typologically remarkable consonant inventory for the ancestor of Lakes Plain, consisting entirely of only five stops:

*p *t *k
*b *d

This results in Lakes Plain languages having high functional load.

Vowels

Many of the languages have very high constricted (fricativised) vowels; in Doutai and Kirikiri these constitute separate phonemes from /i/ and /u/. The fricativised vowels seem to have developed from deletion of a following consonant.

Clouse (1997) reconstructs a five-vowel system for proto-Lakes Plain, not unlike Japanese or Spanish:

*i *u
*e *o
*a

Tone

Lakes Plain languages are all tonal. The Skou languages and Kainantu-Goroka languages are the only other Papuan languages possessing contrastive tone. Clouse and Clouse (1993) reconstruct tone (high level "H" and low level "L") in proto-Lakes Plain.[2]

Iau is the most tonally complex Lakes Plain language. Unlike other Lakes Plain languages which can be disyllabic or trisyllabic, Iau word structure is predominantly monosyllabic. Iau has eight phonemic tones, transcribed by Bateman using numerical Chao tones (usually used with East Asian languages): high (44), mid (33), high-rising (45), low-rising (23), high-to-low-falling (42), high-to-mid-falling (43), mid-to-low-falling (32), and falling-rising (423).[2] (See Iau language#Tone.)

Morphology

Unlike most Papuan languages to the east, words in Lakes Plain languages do not have gender or inflection. Bauzi, an East Geelvink Bay language spoken to the northwest of the Lakes Plain family, also does not have gender.[2] As analytic isolating languages, there is not much morphology.

Basic vocabulary

Basic vocabulary of the Lakes Plain languages (Rasawa, Kirikiri, Iau, Duvle, Obokuitai, Diebroud) listed in Foley (2018):[2]

Lakes Plain basic vocabulary
gloss Rasawa Kirikiri Iau Duvle Obokuitai Diebroud
‘bird’ beβo du dusi fura du duː
‘blood’ uːyo klu oe sæire saig ai die
‘bone’ weβi kiʼ kæ-ri-a -baig butːu
‘breast’ tu tu tui do toub tow
‘ear’ u-ra ke e ovei -kwei ebre
‘eat’ ki-βaβo sa sa dɪa da- beya
‘egg’ uβa dute bi ævisa ako ko
‘eye ɔra kla ɸæ gari -u ruːg
‘fire’ tayo kwɛ be bo kwɛ do
‘give’ paro tu baɛ bou behig bei
‘go’ uɣuβe kia i da/dou do- dug
‘ground’ gi ɸla a pɪa hra faː
‘hair’ u-kha ta-kruʼ iʼ-su tæri hoig teri
‘hear’ puaβo beika bi-bae bou/bæiɪ kwɛri atega
‘leg’ u-ru ɸa tai fria -hig aigwa
‘louse’ piye ɸli i(bo) pri hri fi(god)
‘man’ duβu te te oirɛ ta gutːi
‘moon’ bariya baiʼdaki vrisa so fere
‘name’ uβa kwa ɔsu oiɛ asukwa faya
‘one’ kri-βi suo-we bisi-be soɣo-ɛ kore-kekaig kwaka
‘path, road’ we kwari ioɣoia kuɛi eigre
‘see’ paβo ɸua/ɸori dɔɛ fei/fou badub fǝkta
‘stone’ pa ɸai ɸeki pæxi kwig gwid
‘sun’ kuri baiʼ væir so gwadi
‘tongue’ isɔːkɔ abla ae zæri -rija iri
‘tooth’ ɔ uri biʼ æbidi -brig adːi
‘tree’ ukui du u ura kub gru
‘two’ wɔri ɔro-we tɛʔɛ tio tai
‘water’ de(ye) da e dæ/dɛ -rig dye
‘woman’ kuru ko si oruæi tub ro


Clouse (1997) reconstructs basic vocabulary for proto-Lakes Plain and other lower branches.[4]

Lakes Plain reconstructions by Clouse (1997)
gloss proto-Lakes Plain proto-Far West Lakes Plain proto-Tariku proto-West Tariku proto-Central Tariku proto-East Tariku
neck *kukro *roko *kokro *kokrV *kro
mouth *kukadi/u *koru *kuari *kuari *ba *kua
tooth *bri *biri *bri *bri *biri *bri
eye *kudatiCV *ura *kurati *kurati *kuratiC
nose *boru *boru *boru
hair/fur *kru/i *kru/i *kru *kru/i
fingernail *pV *bV *pV *ɸV *ɸo *pe
skin *ɸidi *bi *ɸiri *ɸire *iri *bari
meat *tV *tV *tV *tV *ta *tV
bone *be *kai *kai *i *ai
breast *touCV *tou *touC *tou^ *touC *touC
stomach *kuria *wia *kuria *kuri *kuia
leg *tu *Ca *Ca *ta *a
foot *to *to *to
water *deida *deire *dida *dida *ida *wadi
fire *kudaide *tairo *kure *kue *be *kure
adjectival suffix *-we/-die *-we/-de *-we/-die *-we *-be *-die
stone *kuipade *pare *kuiɸae *kuiɸae *kuiɸa *kuip
one *kri *keiki *keiki
three *didi *dri *Cidi *Cido *tidi
land *pra/i *pri *pra *ɸra *pra
path *kuadi *arV *kuari *kuari *ba *kuai
wide *wara
rain *kurire *kuie *kuri *kuri *bi
dull *baCu *paupe *baCu *baCu *ba
sun *tio *tio *tio *so *so
moon *bari
banana *kriCV *kiri *kriC *kri^ *kiri *kriC
tree *kuCV *ku *kuC *u *u *kuC
split *pekeka
thorn *kude *pore *kure *kure *be *kure
seed *weto *kaba *ɸe *aCi
black *kVCa *kuara *kVC *kaCa *kiC
bird *du *du *du *du *du
wing *auCo *uko *auCu *auro *apu *akau
cassowary *diadi *kiri *diari *diari *diari
a fly *kubadi *poiti *kubari *kuari *bari *kuari
mosquito *tide *tre *tire *tire *tire *tire
dog *tabi *kaCo *tabi *tiabi *dabi *dabi
tail *tiCa *tiCa *tiCa *tia *tiC
fish *tie *te *tie *tie *te
leech *kibV *kiba *kibi *ki *ki *kibi
louse *pri *piri *pri *ɸri *pri
long *pobi *kure *kure *be *kuri
house *kuadV *aru *kuarV *kua *urV *kuari
near *paipai *paia *aiɸai *aiɸai
person *tau *du *tai *te *te *tai
bad *kaibe *ɸVra *ɸe *ɸura
child *tau-bri *tu-ri *tau-bri *tau-bri *tau- *tau-bi
2SG *de *de *de *de *di *de
1PL *ai *e *ai *ai *e *ai
3SG *kibV *be *o *de
go/walk *kidia *dao *kidia *kidia *dia
hear-STAT *kuedi-kuda *beri-kura *kueri-kua *beri-kua *beri-wa *kueri-kua
search *paka
suck *tau *tu *tau *taua *betu
vomit *kadudu *aru *karudu *ku *u *krudu
scrape *kiCi *kibie *kiri *kiri *iri *bekiri
sit *ɸuɸu *kua *ɸuɸu *ɸoko *bau *buhu
stand *dia-dau *tarau *dia-da *dia-da
grab *tiadado *suarau *araro *araro *da *do
blow *pudV *purV *purV *ɸura *ɸoi *bu-ɸuru
cough *takadV *takari *takurV *takuro *taurai *takura
firewood *bodi *bori *bo *bori
feces *pade *pare *ɸa *ɸa *pare
urine *tiCi *tiCi *ti^ *tii *tiCi
penis *tiuCV *tiuC *tiu^ *tiu *tuC
scrotum *kudiCV *kuriC *kui^ *kuiC
chin *kuaukadi *kuaukari *kuaukai *baukai *kuaukari
ant *keCV *keC *ke *e *kiC
arrow *poka *poka *ɸoka *ɸoka *poka

Further reading

  • Proto-Lakes-Plain. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Clouse, D.A. 1997. Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya. In Franklin, K. (ed). Papers in Papuan Linguistics No. 2. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra. ; (2) Clouse, D.A. 1993. Languages of the Western Lakes Plain. Irian, 21, 1–32.
  • Proto-Far West Lakes Plain. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Clouse, D.A. 1997. Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya. In Franklin, K. (ed). Papers in Papuan Linguistics No. 2. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra. ; (2) Clouse, D.A. 1993. Languages of the Western Lakes Plain. Irian, 21, 1–32.
  • Proto-Tariku. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Clouse, D.A. 1997. Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya. In Franklin, K. (ed). Papers in Papuan Linguistics No. 2. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra. ; (2) Clouse, D.A. 1993. Languages of the Western Lakes Plain. Irian, 21, 1–32.
  • Proto-West-Tariku. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Clouse, D.A. 1997. Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya. In Franklin, K. (ed). Papers in Papuan Linguistics No. 2. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra. ; (2) Clouse, D.A. 1993. Languages of the Western Lakes Plain. Irian, 21, 1–32.
  • Proto-Central-Tariku. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Clouse, D.A. 1997. Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya. In Franklin, K. (ed). Papers in Papuan Linguistics No. 2. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra. ; (2) Clouse, D.A. 1993. Languages of the Western Lakes Plain. Irian, 21, 1–32.
  • Proto-East-Tariku. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Clouse, D.A. 1997. Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya. In Franklin, K. (ed). Papers in Papuan Linguistics No. 2. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra. ; (2) Clouse, D.A. 1993. Languages of the Western Lakes Plain. Irian, 21, 1–32.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lakes Plain". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c d e Foley, William A. (2018). "The languages of Northwest New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 433–568. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  3. ^ Foley, William A. (2018). "The morphosyntactic typology of Papuan languages". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 895–938. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ a b c Clouse, Duane A. (1997). "Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya". In Karl Franklin (ed.). Papers in Papuan linguistics no. 2 (PDF). A-85. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 133–236. ISBN 0858834421.
  5. ^ New Guinea World - Lakes Plains
  • Clouse, Duane A. (1997). Karl Franklin (ed.). "Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya". Papers in New Guinea Linguistics. 2: 133–236. ISSN 0078-9135. OCLC 2729642.
  • Clouse, Heljä; Duane A. Clouse (1993). "Kirikiri and the western Lakes Plain languages: selected phonological phenomena". Language and Linguistics in Melanesia. 24: 1–18. OCLC 9188672.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
  • Silzer, Peter; Heljä Heikkinen (1991). Index of Irian Jaya languages (Second ed.). Jayapura: University Cenderawasih and Summer Institute of Linguistics. OCLC 26368341.

External links