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Kurnool

Kurnool
Kandanavolu
City
Adoni Fort at  Kurnool District
Adoni Fort at Kurnool District
Nickname(s): The Gateway of Rayalaseema
Kurnool is located in Andhra Pradesh
Kurnool
Kurnool
Kurnool is located in India
Kurnool
Kurnool
Location in Andhra Pradesh and in India
Coordinates: 15°50′N 78°03′E / 15.83°N 78.05°E / 15.83; 78.05
Country  India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Kurnool
Government
 • Type Municipal corporation
Area
 • City 65.9 km2 (25.4 sq mi)
Area rank 105
Elevation 274 m (899 ft)
Population (2011)[1]//
 • City 430,214
 • Rank 106th (India)
5th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density 6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 16,00,000 (KUDA)
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 518001, 518002, 518003, 518004
Vehicle registration AP-21
Website Kurnool Municipal Corporation

Kurnool is a city, former princely state and the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[3] The city is often referred as The Gateway of Rayalaseema.[4] It was the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011 census, it is the fifth most populous city in the state with a population of 460,184.[5][6]

Etymology

The name Kurnool is derived from Kandanavolu.[7]

History

Palaeolithic era

The Ketavaram [8] rock paintings from the Paleolithic era and are (18 kilometres from Kurnool). Also the Jurreru Valley, Katavani Kunta[9] and Yaganti in Kurnool District have some important rock art and paintings in the vicinity, may be dated from 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.

State and rulers

Kurnool state was established by a Pathan general and annexed by Britain in 1839. Its rulers (nawabs) were:[10]

  • 1690 - .... Daud Khan
  • .... - 1724 Ibrahim Khan
  • 1724–1734 Alif Khan
  • 1733–1751 Himayat Bahadur Khan
  • 1751–1792 Munawwar Khan
  • 1792 – 1815 Aluf Khan
  • 1815 Muzaffar Khan
  • 1815–1823 Munawwar Khan
  • 1823–1839 Ghulam Rasul Khan

Post independence

The city served as the capital of Andhra State from 1953–1956, until in 1956, the Telangana region was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh state, and its capital was shifted from Kurnool to Hyderabad.[11][12]

Geography and climate

Location

Kurnool is located at 15°50′00″N 78°03′00″E / 15.8333°N 78.05°E / 15.8333; 78.05.[13] It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet).

Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C. Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation.

Cityscape

Front View of Kondareddy Buruju.

Landmarks in and around the city include Konda Reddy Fort (or Kondareddy Burj) is the remnant of Kurnool fort on the north east part of the city.[14] Orvakal rock Garderns with a cave museum lies on the South East of the city.[15]

Climate

The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 46 °C (114.8 °F) in the summer and 12 °C (53.6 °F) to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 705 millimetres (28 in).

Climate data for Kurnool (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.3
(99.1)
39.9
(103.8)
42.6
(108.7)
44.8
(112.6)
46.5
(115.7)
42
(108)
38.5
(101.3)
37.8
(100)
38.7
(101.7)
38.4
(101.1)
38.8
(101.8)
34.4
(93.9)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 31.7
(89.1)
34.8
(94.6)
38.2
(100.8)
40.1
(104.2)
40.5
(104.9)
36.2
(97.2)
33.6
(92.5)
32.5
(90.5)
32.9
(91.2)
32.5
(90.5)
31.2
(88.2)
30.5
(86.9)
34.6
(94.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
20.3
(68.5)
23.8
(74.8)
26.7
(80.1)
27.5
(81.5)
25.5
(77.9)
24.5
(76.1)
23.9
(75)
23.8
(74.8)
22.8
(73)
20.1
(68.2)
17.8
(64)
22.9
(73.2)
Record low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
11.1
(52)
12.8
(55)
15.5
(59.9)
19.4
(66.9)
17.6
(63.7)
19.2
(66.6)
19.9
(67.8)
17.0
(62.6)
13.0
(55.4)
9.3
(48.7)
6.7
(44.1)
6.7
(44.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.0
(0.157)
2.2
(0.087)
9.8
(0.386)
26.4
(1.039)
50.4
(1.984)
93.6
(3.685)
121.4
(4.78)
143.4
(5.646)
145.0
(5.709)
114.1
(4.492)
23.0
(0.906)
3.9
(0.154)
737.2
(29.024)
Average precipitation days 0.3 0.2 0.7 1.6 2.7 5.7 7.6 9.0 7.7 5.2 1.9 0.3 43.0
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[16][17]

Demographics

Others include Sikhs & Parsis
Religion in Kurnool[18]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
67.19%
Islam
29.21%
Christianity
2.49%
Others
1.11%

As per final data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 484,327. The literacy rate was 77.37 per cent.[19] note: The Office of Registrar General & Census Commissioner of India. note: UA = Urban Agglomeration.

Politics

The present MLA is S V Mohan Reddy.[20]

Education

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[21][22]

Transport

Roads

Kurnool is well connected by road with State Capital Amaravathi. It is in halfway between Hyderabad and Bengaluru. National Highway 44 (India) connects Kurnool to Hyderabad. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada. National Highway 40 (India) (new numbering) runs from Kurnool to Chittoor are the major highways passing through the city. The city has a total road length of 519.22 km[23] State owned bus transport system, APSRTC, operates buses from Kurnool bus station to other parts of the state.[24][25]

Railways

Kurnool railway station lies on the Hyderabad – Guntakal railway line. It is classified as an A–category station in the Hyderabad railway division of South Central Railway zone.

Airport

The Ministry of Civil Aviation has proposed to develop Kurnool Airport, a greenfield airport near Orvakal, 25 km from Kurnool city. The airport in being built on 1,110 acres of land at a cost of Rs.234 crores and will be completed by mid July 2018.[citation needed]

Economy

Kurnool is endowed with good mineral resources. The important minerals are Iron ore, Dolomite, lime stone, ochre, quartz stealite and silica.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ //"Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  2. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  3. ^ "District Census Handbook : Kurnool" (PDF). Census of India. p. 50. Retrieved 21 August 2015. 
  4. ^ Sarkar, Siddhartha (2011). International Journal of Economic and Political Integration: Vol.1, No.1. Universal-Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-61233-544-5. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  5. ^ [ourkmc.com]
  6. ^ "KURNOOL MUNICIPAL CORPORATION STATUS REPORT". Docslide.us. 
  7. ^ "Heritage in Kurnool". AP Tourism Department. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  9. ^ Petraglia, Michael. "New rock art discoveries in the Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India". academia.edu. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  10. ^ Ben Cahoon. "Princely States of India K-Z". worldstatesmen.org. 
  11. ^ "The Indian Express – Google News Archive Search". google.com. 
  12. ^ Somasekhar, Ch RS Sarma / M. "Capital loss: Madras, Kurnool, now Hyderabad". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 
  13. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Kurnool, India". fallingrain.com. 
  14. ^ "Gopal Darwaza stands as a witness to history". The Hindu. Kurnool. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 
  15. ^ Kurmanath, K.V (22 June 2006). "A rocky, solid gift from nature". The Hindu Business Line. Orvakal (Kurnool district). Retrieved 28 February 2016. 
  16. ^ "Kurnool Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  17. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  18. ^ "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  19. ^
  20. ^ "S V Mohan Reddy Joins 'Parent Party'". 
  21. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  22. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  23. ^ "DETAILS OF ROADS IN EACH ULB OF ANDHRA PRADESH". Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. 
  24. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  25. ^ Krishnamoorthy, Suresh (22 April 2015). "Several bus stations lack CCTV surveillance". The Hindu. Hyderabad. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  26. ^ [dcmsme.gov.in]

External links