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Location of the Kumul Khanate
|Status||Vassal of the Qing dynasty (1696–1912)|
Vassal of the Republic of China (1912–1930)
|Common languages||Chinese language, Uyghur language (Turki)|
|Today part of||China|
Part of a series on the
|History of Xinjiang|
The khans of Kumul were direct descendants of the khans of the Chagatai Khanate. It came under Qing rule in 1696 and remained a khanate as a part of the Qing Empire.
The Ming dynasty established a tributary relationship with the Kumul Khanate, which was heavily involved in the Ming–Turpan conflict. The Khanate paid tribute to the Ming. The Kumul Khanate under Sa'id Baba supported Chinese Muslim Ming loyalists during the 1646 Milayin rebellion against the Qing dynasty. After the defeat of the Ming loyalists, during which the Kumul Prince Turumtay was killed at the hands of Qing forces, Kumul submitted to the Qing.
Beginning in 1647, the rulers of Hami submitted to the Qing dynasty and sent tribute. The title "Jasak Darhan" was granted to Abdullah Beg, ruler of Hami in 1696 after submitting to the Qing as a vassal during the Dzungar–Qing War.
The khans also were given the title of Qinwang (Prince of the First Rank Chinese: 親王; pinyin: qīn wáng), by the Qing Empire. The khans were allowed enormous power by the Qing court, with the exception of administering execution, which had to be allowed by a Chinese official posted in Kumul. The khans were officially vassals to the Emperor of China, and every six years were required to visit Beijing to be a servant to the Emperor during a period of 40 days.
The khan was assisted by a chancellor/vizer/chief minister in his court. The last khan, Maqsud Shah, had Yulbars Khan, the tiger Prince of Hami as his chancellor.
The khan paid tribute to the Xinjiang government in Ürümqi.
Around the 1920s Japanese secret agents began exploring the Kumul area.
It was the fact that the khanate existed which prevented the Uyghurs from rebelling, since the khanate represented a government where a man of their ethnicity and religion was reigning. The abolition of the khanate led to a bloody rebellion.
Upon Maqsud Shah's death in 1930 Jin Shuren replaced the khanate with three normal provincial administrative districts Hami, Yihe, and Yiwu. This set off the Kumul Rebellion, in which Yulbars Khan attempted to restore the heir Nasir to the throne.
|1st generation||Abdullah Beg 額貝都拉 é-bèi-dōu-lā||1697－1709||In the 36th year of the Kangxi reign, he was granted the title of Jasagh Darhan of the First Rank. He died in the 48th year of Kangxi's reign.|
|2nd generation||郭帕 guō-pà||1709－1711||Abdullah Beg's eldest son. In the 48th year of Kangxi's reign he was granted the title of Jasagh Darhan of the First Rank. He died in the fiftieth year of Kangxi's reign.|
|3rd generation||Emin 額敏 É-mǐn||1711－1740||guō-pà beg's eldest son. In the fiftieth year of Kangxi's reign he inherited the title of Jasagh Darhan of the First Rank. In the fifth year of Yongzheng's reign he was promoted to Zhenguo Gong (鎮國公) (Duke Who Guards the State); in the 7th year of Yongzheng's reign, he was promoted to Gushan Beizi (固山貝子) (Banner Prince). In the 5th year of Qianlong's reign he died.|
|4th generation||Yusuf 玉素甫 Yù-sù-fǔ or Yusup 玉素卜yù sù bǔ||1740－1767||Emin's eldest son. In the fifth year of Qianlong's reign he inherited the title of Jasagh Zhenguo Gong. In the 10th year of Qianlong's reign he was promoted to Gushan Beizi. In the 23rd year of Qianlong's reign he was granted the title of Beile pinji (貝勒品級). In the 24th year of Qianlong's reign, he was conferred the title of Duoluo Beile (多羅貝勒), and conferred the title of Junwang pinji (郡王品級). He died in the 12th month of the 31st year (January 1767).|
|5th generation||Ishaq 伊薩克 yī-sà-kè||1767－1780||Yusuf's second son. In the 32nd year of Qianlong's reign he inherited the title of Junwang pinji Jasagh Duoluo Beile. In the 45th year he died.|
|6th generation||額爾德錫爾 é-Ěr-dé-xī-ěr||1780－1813||Ishaq's eldest son. In the 45th year of Qianlong's reign, he inherited the title of Junwang pinji Jasagh duoluo beile. In the 48th year by imperial order he was granted permanent succession (all his descendants would automatically inherited his title). In the 18th year of the Jiaqing Emperor he died.|
|7th generation||博錫爾 bó-xī-ěr||1813－1867||Son of é-Ěr-dé-xī-ěr. In the 18th year of Jiaqing's reign, he inherited (his father's titles). In the 12th year of Daoguang's reign, he was promoted to Duoluo Junwang 多羅郡王. In the third year of Xianfeng's reign, he was granted the title of Qinwang 親王. In the fifth year of Tongzhi's reign, the Dungan revolt broke out, but he stayed loyal (to the Qing). In the sixth year of Tongzhi's reign, he was posthumously granted the title of Hezhuo Qinwang 和碩親王.|
|8th generation||Muhammad 賣哈莫特 mài-hǎ-mò-tè||1867－1882||Son of bó-xī-ěr. In the sixth year of Tongzhi's reign he inherited the title of Jasagh Heshuo Qinwang. In the seventh year of Guangxu's reign, he died, leaving no one to succeeded to his title.|
|9th generation||Maqsud Shah 沙木胡索特 shā-mù-hú-suǒ-tè||1882－1930||Muhammad's agnatic nephew. In the eighth year of Guangxu's reign he inherited his titles. In the fourth year of the Republic of China, his salary as qinwang was doubled. In the 19th year of the Republic of China on the sixth month on the sixth day, he died of illness.|
|10th generation||聶滋爾 niè-zī-ěr||19th year of the Republic-23rd year of the Republic||Maqsud Shah's second son. In the 19th year of the Republic of China on the 9th month on the 13th day he inherited his titles. In the 23rd year of the Republic he died.|
|11th generation||伯錫爾 bó-xī-ěr||23rd year of the Republic-38th year of the Republic||niè-zī-ěr's eldest son. In the 23rd year of the Republic on the fourth month he inherited his titles. He was arrested and sent to prison. In 1951 he died while in prison.|