This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Kula language

Native toIndonesia
RegionAlor Island
Native speakers
5,000 (1997)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3tpg

Kula (Kola) or Lamtoka (Lantoka), also known as Tanglapui, is a Papuan language spoken in villages on the north coast, south coast and mountainous interior of Alor Island in Indonesia. Dialects are Kula proper, Kulatela, Watena, Kula Watena, Iramang, Larena, Sumang, Arumaka. Most settlements were Kula is spoken are "new villages" that have only been inhabited since the 1960s. Due to this recent resettlement, and since usage of the language is disencouraged in schools, Kula is an endangered language.[3]


The data in this section are taken from Williams (2017).[3] Phonemes in brackets are "marginal phonemes".


Consonant phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar
Plosive p b t d     k g () <kw> () <gw>
Fricative (β) <w>   s              
Affricate         (d͡ʒ) <j>          
Nasal   m   n     ŋ <ng>      
Approximant   w       j <y>        
Trill       (r)            
Lateral       l            


Vowel phonemes
  Front Central Back
High i       u  
  ɪ <í>        
Mid e       o  
    ɐ <á>      
Low     a      


  1. ^ Kula at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kula (Indonesia)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b Williams, Nicholas J. (2017). "Kula". In Schapper, Antoinette (ed.). The Papuan Languages of Timor, Alor and Pantar: Volume 2. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 185–266.

External links