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Koreans

Koreans
한국인 (韓國人) or 조선인 (朝鮮人)
Total population
c. 84 million[1]
Regions with significant populations

 South Korea      50,423,955 (2014 estimate)[2]
 North Korea      25,300,000 (2014 estimate)[3]

Diaspora as of 2015
c. 7–7.42 million[4]
 China 2,585,993[4]
 United States 2,238,989[4]
 Japan 855,725[4]
 Canada 224,054[4]
 Uzbekistan 186,186[4]
 Russia 166,956[4]
 Australia 153,653[4]
 Vietnam 108,850[4]
 Kazakhstan 107,613[4]
 Philippines 89,037[4]
 Brazil 50,418[4]
 Indonesia 40,741[4]
 United Kingdom 40,263[4]
 Germany 39,047[4]
 New Zealand 30,174[4]
 Arab League 24,000[4][5]
 Argentina 22,730[4]
 Thailand 19,700[4]
 Singapore 19,450[4]
 Kyrgyzstan 18,709[4]
 France 15,000[4]
 Ukraine 13,103[4]
 Malaysia 12,690[4]
 Mexico 11,800[4]
 India 10,178[4]
 Cambodia 8,445[4]
 Sweden 8,000[4]
 Saudi Arabia 5,189[4]
 Guatemala 5,162[4]
 Paraguay 5,090[4]
 Taiwan 4,828[4]
Languages
Korean[6]
Religion
Primarily Christianity, Korean Buddhism, Korean shamanism, and Cheondoism[7][8]
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Koreans (Hangul한민족; Hanja韓民族; RRHanminjok; alternatively Hangul조선민족; Hanja朝鮮民族; RRJoseonminjok; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to the whole Korean Peninsula and southeastern Manchuria.[9][10][11]

Koreans mainly live in the two Korean nation states, South Korea and North Korea (collectively referred to simply as Korea), but are also an officially recognized minority in China, Vietnam, Japan and Philippines, plus a number of former Soviet states, such as Russia and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have emerged in Australia, Canada, United States and, to a lesser extent, other nations with a primarily immigrant background.

As of 2013, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Korean expatriates worldwide.[4]

Etymology

South Koreans refer to themselves as Hanguk-in (Hangul한국인; Hanja韓國人), or Hanguk-saram (Hangul한국 사람), both of which mean "Korean nation people." When referring to members of the Korean diaspora, Koreans often use the term Han-in (Hangul한인; Hanja韓人; literally "Korean people").

North Koreans refer to themselves as Joseon-in (Hangul조선인; Hanja朝鮮人) or Joseon-saram (Hangul조선 사람), both of which literally mean "Joseon people". The term is derived from the Joseon dynasty, a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for approximately five centuries from 1392 to 1897. Using similar words, Koreans in China refer to themselves as Chaoxianzu (Chinese: 朝鲜族) in Chinese or Joseonjok (Hangul조선족) in Korean, which are cognates that literally mean "Joseon ethnic group".[12][13]

In the chorus of Aegukga, the national anthem of South Korea, the Koreans are referred to as Daehan-saram (Hangul대한사람).

Ethnic Koreans living in Russia and Central Asia refer to themselves as Koryo-saram (Hangul고려 사람; Cyrillic script: Корё сарам), alluding to Goryeo, a Korean dynasty spanning from 918 to 1392.

Origins

Linguistic and archaeological studies

Koreans are the descendants or an admixture of the ancient people who settled in the Korean Peninsula, historically said to be Siberian or[14][15] paleo-Asian[16]. Archaeological evidence suggests that proto-Koreans were migrants from Manchuria during the bronze age.[17] It is noteworthy to mention that there were already people (possibly Japonic speakers)[18] living on the Korean peninsula from the Paleolithic age and Neolithic age, and thus it is logical to assume that there was intermingling between these populations.

Linguistic evidence indicates speakers of proto-Korean languages were established in southeastern Manchuria and northern Korean peninsula by the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, and migrated from there to southern Korea during this period.[19]

The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula. In fact, with an estimated 35,000-100,000 dolmen,[20] Korea accounts for nearly 70% of the world's total. Similar dolmens can be found in Manchuria, the Shandong Peninsula and the Kyushu island, yet it is unclear why this culture only flourished so extensively on the Korean Peninsula and its surroundings compared to the bigger remainder of Northeastern Asia.

Craniometric studies

In a craniometric study, Pietrusewsky (1994) found that the Japanese series, which was a series that spanned from the Yayoi period to modern times, formed a single branch with Korea.[21] Later, Pietrusewsky (1999) found, however, that Korean and Yayoi people were very highly separated in the East Asian cluster, indicating that the connection that Japanese have with Korea would not have derived from Yayoi people.[21]

Park Dae-kyoon et al. (2001) said that distance analysis based on thirty-nine non-metric cranial traits showed that Koreans are closer craniometrically to Kazakhs and Mongols than Koreans are close craniometrically to the populations in China and Japan.[22]

Genetic studies

Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct, mostly endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups.[23] The reference population for Koreans used in Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 94% Eastern Asia and 5% Southeast Asia & Oceania.[24]

Among the populations of East Asia, The Italian-born American geneticist Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University placed Koreans in a cluster of populations including the Japanese, Ryukyuans, Ainus, Tibetans, and Bhutanese, with smallest genetic distance from the Ryukyuans and the Japanese from Hokkaido.[25] In a broader comparison of populations from every region of Asia, the aforementioned cluster is subsumed in a Northeast and East Asian cluster that also includes the Koryak, Chukchi, Reindeer Chukchi, Nganasan, Samoyed, Northern Tungus, Nentsy, N. Chinese, and Mongol samples.[26][25][27][28]

Kim Wook et al. (2000) said that Chu et al. (1998) found that phylogeny which was based on 30 microsatellites indicated that Korean people were closely related to Chinese people from Manchu and Yunnan, but Kim Wook et al. (2000) found that the high incidence of the DXYS156Y-null variant in northeast Chinese implied that it is possible to exclude these northeastern Chinese populations from being sources which are significant in Korean people. The phylogenetic analysis done by Kim Wook et al. (2000) indicated that Japanese people are genetically closer to Korean people than Japanese people are genetically related to any of the following peoples: Mongolians, Chinese, Vietnamese, Indonesians, Filipinos and Thais. The study said that mainland Japanese having Koreans as their closest genetic population is consistent with the following previous studies: Hammer and Horai (1995); Horai et al. (1996); and Kim et al. (1998). The study found that Koreans are more genetically homogenous than the Japanese, and the study said that this might be due to different sizes of the founding populations and range expansions. The study said that the moderate mean Y-chromosome haplotype diversity value for Koreans might be the result of migrations from East Asia that had a homogenizing influence. The study said that it is more probable that Koreans descend from dual infusions of Y-chromosomes from two different waves of East Asians rather than a single East Asian population due to the dual patterns of the Y-chromosome haplotype distribution found in Koreans.[29]

Kim Jong-jin et al. (2005) did a study about the genetic relationships among East Asians based on allele frequencies, particularly focusing on how Chinese, Japanese and Koreans are related. Most Koreans were hard to distinguish from Japanese, and the study was not able to clearly distinguish Koreans and Japanese. Koreans and Japanese clustered together in the principal component analysis and the best least-squares tree. The study said that "[c]ommon ancestry and/or extensive gene flow" historically between Koreans and Japanese appears to be "likely" and results in a lot of difficulty finding population-specific alleles that could assist in differentiating Koreans and Japanese.[30]

Hideo Matsumoto, professor emeritus at Osaka Medical College, tested Gm types, genetic markers of immunoglobulin G, of Korean populations for a 2009 study. The Korean populations were populations in Jeju Island, Busan, Gwangju, Kongsan, Jeonju, Wonju, the Kannung of South Korea and a Korean population in Yanji. Matsumoto said that the Gm ab3st gene is a marker for northern Mongoloid, and Matsumoto said that the average frequency of Gm ab3st for Koreans was 14.5% which was intermediate between an average frequency of 26% for general Japanese and a frequency of 11.7% which was for a Han population in Beijing. Matsumoto said that Gm afb1b3 is a southern marker gene, and Matsumoto said that the average frequency of Gm afb1b3 for Koreans was 14.7% which was intermediate between a frequency of 10.6% for general Japanese and a frequency of 24.1% for Beijing Han. Matsumoto said that Koreans displayed the northern Mongoloid pattern, but Matsumoto said that Koreans displayed a higher frequency of the southern marker gene, Gm afb1b3, than the Japanese. Matsumoto said that "Japanese and Korean populations were originally identical or extremely close to each other", and Matsumoto said, "It seemed to be during the formation of the contemporary Korean population that such a Gm pattern intermediate between Japanese and the northern Han in China emerged." Matsumoto said that the different Gm pattern between Japanese and Koreans most likely came about from frequent inflows of Chinese and/or northern populations into the Korean Peninsula.[31]

He Miao et al. (2009) created an artificial combination of equal parts of the Y-chromsomes of the HapMap samples of Han Chinese in Beijing and Japanese in Tokyo. The study said that this artificial combination resembled five populations which included Koreans in South Korea and Koreans in China.[32]

Jung Jongsun et al. (2010) used the following Korean samples for a study: South East Korean (sample regions: Gyeongju, Goryeong and Ulsan), Middle West Korean (sample regions: Jecheon, Yeoncheon, Cheonan and Pyeongchang) and South West Korean (sample regions: Gimje, Naju and Jeju). Jung et al. said that in the neighbor joining tree the nodes for South West Korea were close to Japan, the nodes for Middle West Korea were close to China, and the nodes for South East Korea were to the right of the tree. Jung et al. said that the Korea-Japan-China genome map indicated overall that some signals for Mongolia remain in South West Korea, some signals for Siberia remain in South East Korea and Middle West Korea shows an average signal for South Korea.[33]

Kim Young-jin and Jin Han-jun (2013) said that principal component analysis had Korean HapMap samples clustering with populations which were geographically nearby them such as Chinese and Japanese. The study said that Koreans are genetically closely related to Japanese in comparison to Koreans' genetic relatedness to other East Asians which included the following East Asian peoples: Tujia, Miao, Daur, She, Mongols, Naxi, Cambodians, Oroqen, Yakuts, Yi, Han Chinese, North Han Chinese, Hezhen, Xibo, Lahu, Dai and Tu. The study said that the close genetic relatedness of Koreans to Japanese has been reported in the following previous studies: Kivisild et al. (2002); Jin et al. (2003); Jin et al. (2009); and Underhill and Kivisild (2007). The study said that Jung et al. (2010) said that there is a genetic substructure in Koreans, but the study said that it found Korean HapMap individuals to be highly genetically similar. The study said that Jin et al. (2009) found that Koreans from different populations are not different in a significant way which indicates that Koreans are genetically homogenous. The study said that the affinity of Koreans is predominately Southeast Asian with an estimated admixture of 79% Southeast Asian and 21% Northeast Asian for Koreans, but the study said that this does not mean that Koreans are heterogenous, because all of the Koreans which were analyzed uniformly displayed a dual pattern of Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian origins. The study said that Koreans and Japanese displayed no observable difference between each other in their proportion of Southeast Asian and Northeast Asian admixture. The study said the 79% Southeast Asian and 21% Northeast Asian admixture estimate for Koreans is consistent with the interpretation of Jin et al. (2009) that Koreans descend from a Northeast Asian population which was subsequently followed by a male-centric migration from the southern region of Asia which changed both the autosomal composition and Y-chromosomes in the Korean population.[34]

Bhak Jong-hwa who is a professor in the biomedical engineering department at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) Genome Research Foundation led an international genome research team which involved researchers from Germany, the United Kingdom and Russia, and this team announced information about the genetic structure of modern Koreans.[35][36] The research team took DNA from human skulls from a cave in the Russian Far East called Devil's Gate Cave.[36] The research found that the people in Devil's Gate Cave were the ancestors of the Ulchi people, and the research team said that the Ulchi people have a genetic structure which is the closest to modern Koreans.[36][37] The research team found that what they got by combining the genomes from the cave with the genomes from native Vietnamese and Taiwanese was close to modern Korean DNA.[38] Bhak said that Koreans were formed from a pre-existing Northern Mongoloid group, a Southern Mongoloid group that went north and an additional Southern Mongoloid group.[35] The research team said, "Even though Koreans have traces of combinations from both sides, the actual genetic structure of modern Koreans is much closer to that of southern Asians."[36] Bhak also said that Koreans were formed from the admixture of hunter-gatherers on the peninsula and agricultural Southern Mongoloids from Vietnam who went through China.[35] Bhak said, "We believe the number of ancient dwellers who migrated north from Vietnam far exceeds the number of those occupying the peninsula."[39] Bhak said, "Thousands of years ago East Asian hunter gatherers expanded over all of Asia, as far as Russia in the north, and formed the northern race. And about ten thousand years ago the southern Han Chinese developed a full-scale agrarian society and rapidly expanded. However, in contrast to western Eurasians, the southern people did not supplant the northern people, but rather the two groups intermingled."[40] Bhak also said, "The southern people expanded much more than the northern people, so the hereditary traits of modern people show a much stronger influence from the southern people."[40]

Veronika Siska et al. (2017) said that the Ulchi people are genetically closest in the study's panel to the human remains from the Devil's Gate Cave which are dated to about 7,700 years ago. Modern Korean and Japanese, the Oroqen people and the Hezhen people display a high affinity to the human remains from Devil's Gate Cave. Considering the geographic distance of Amerindians from Devil's Gate Cave, Amerindians are unusually genetically close to the human remains from Devil's Gate Cave. Korean genomes display similar traits to Japanese genomes on genome-wide SNP data. Korean genomes have displayed both southern and northern Asian mtDNA and Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups.[41]

Y-DNA haplogroups

Korean males display a high frequency of Haplogroup O-M176 (O1b2, formerly O2b), a subclade that probably has spread mainly from somewhere in the Korean Peninsula or its vicinity,[42][43] and Haplogroup O-M122 (O2, formerly O3), a common Y-DNA haplogroup among East and Southeast Asians in general.[44][45] Haplogroup O1b2-M176 has been found in approximately 30% (ranging from 20%[46][47][48] to 37%[49]) of sampled Korean males, while haplogroup O2-M122 has been found in approximately 40% of sampled Korean males.[50][51][52] Korean males also exhibit a moderate frequency (approximately 15%) of Haplogroup C-M217.

About 2% of Korean males belong to Haplogroup D-M174 (0/216 = 0.0% DE-YAP,[52] 3/300 = 1.0% DE-M145,[53] 1/68 = 1.5% DE-YAP(xE-SRY4064),[47] 8/506 = 1.6% D1b-M55,[42] 3/154 = 1.9% DE,[48] 18/706 = 2.55% D-M174,[54] 5/164 = 3.0% D-M174,[55] 1/75 D1b*-P37.1(xD1b1-M116.1) + 2/75 D1b1a-M125(xD1b1a1-P42) = 3/75 = 4.0% D1b-P37.1,[49] 3/45 = 6.7% D-M174[56]). The D1b-M55 subclade has been found with maximal frequency in a small sample (n=16) of the Ainu people of Japan, and is generally frequent throughout the Japanese Archipelago.[57] Other haplogroups that have been found less commonly in samples of Korean males are Y-DNA haplogroup N-M231 (approx. 4%), haplogroup O-M119 (approx. 3%), haplogroup O-M268(xM176) (approx. 2%), haplogroup Q-M242 and Haplogroup R1 (approx. 2% total), J, Y*(xA, C, DE, J, K), L, C-RPS4Y(xM105, M38, M217), and C-M105.[42][47][58]

Korea Foundation Associate Professor of History, Eugene Y. Park, said that there is no correlation between a Korean person's Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup and their surname or ancestral seat.[59][60]

mtDNA haplogroups

Studies of Korean mitochondrial DNA lineages have shown that there is a high frequency of Haplogroup D4, ranging from approximately 23% (11/48) among ethnic Koreans in Arun Banner, Inner Mongolia[61] to approximately 32% (33/103) among Koreans from South Korea.[62][63] Haplogroup D4 is the modal mtDNA haplogroup among Koreans and among Northeast Asians in general. Haplogroup B, which occurs very frequently in many populations of Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and the Americas, is found in approximately 10% (5/48 ethnic Koreans from Arun Banner, Inner Mongolia) to 20% (21/103 Koreans from South Korea) of Koreans.[48][61][63] Haplogroup A has been detected in approximately 7% (7/103 Koreans from South Korea) to 15% (7/48 ethnic Koreans from Arun Banner, Inner Mongolia) of Koreans.[61][63][64] Haplogroup A is the most common mtDNA haplogroup among the Chukchi, Eskimo, Na-Dene, and many Amerind ethnic groups of North and Central America.

The other half of the Korean mtDNA pool consists of an assortment of various haplogroups, each found with relatively low frequency, such as G, N9, Y, F, D5, M7, M8, M9, M10, M11, R11, C, and Z.[48]

A study of the mtDNA of 708 Koreans sampled from six provinces of South Korea (134 from Seoul-Gyeonggi, 118 from Jeolla, 117 from Chungcheong, 114 from Gangwon, 113 from Jeju, and 112 from Gyeongsang) found that they belonged to haplogroup D (35.5%, including 14.7% D4(xD4a, D4b), 7.8% D4a, 6.5% D5, 6.4% D4b, and 0.14% D(xD4, D5)), haplogroup B (14.8%, including 11.0% B4 and 3.8% B5), haplogroup A (8.3%), haplogroup M7 (7.6%), haplogroup F (7.1%), haplogroup M8'CZ (6.5%), haplogroup G (6.1%), haplogroup N9a (5.2%), haplogroup Y (3.8%), haplogroup M9 (2.7%), haplogroup M10 (1.6%), haplogroup M11 (0.42%), haplogroup N(xN9, Y, A, F, B4, B5) (0.28%), and haplogroup N9(xN9a) (0.14%).[65]

Data tables

Frequency of kell factor
Number
tested
K+ K-
No. % No. %
Korean
     by Lee, Previous series 52 1 1.92 51 98.08
     by Lee, Present series 158 0 0.00 158 100.00
     by Lee, Combined series 210 1 0.48 209 99.52
Chinese
     by Miller (1951) 103 0 0.00 103 100.00
English
     by Race et al. (1954) 797 69 8.66 728 91.34
Source: Table 5, Page 20, Samuel Y. Lee (1965)[66]


Frequency of Diego factor in Mongoloids
Total
number
tested
Dia+
No. %
Korean
     by Lee, Present series 117 17 14.5
Chinese
     by Layrisse and Arends, (1956) 100 5 5.0
Japanese
     by Layrisse and Arends, (1956) 65 8 12.31
     by Lewis et al., (1956) 77 6 7.79
     by Ueno and Murakata, (1957) 153 12 7.84
     by Lewis et al., (1958) 145 10 6.89
     by Iseki et al., (1958) 500 16 3.20
Source: Table 12, Page 23, Samuel Y. Lee (1965)[66]


Percent Sequence Divergence of
mtDNA Haplotype Divergences
MC MM MA SA TW VN KN
MC 0.196 0.229 0.207 0.241 0.193 0.255 0.219
MM 0.04 0.182 0.188 0.200 0.193 0.236 0.205
MA 0.035 0.023 0.148 0.196 0.177 0.211 0.194
SA 0.053 0.019 0.032 0.180 0.195 0.254 0.220
TW 0.022 0.029 0.031 0.032 0.145 0.215 0.189
VN 0.039 0.027 0.019 0.046 0.024 0.236 0.243
KN 0.028 0.021 0.028 0.037 0.024 0.032 0.185
Color Code & Abbreviations
    
interpopulational divergence
    
intrapopulational divergences
    
interpopulational divergences corrected
for intrapopulational variation
MC Malaysian Chinese MM Malays
MA Malay Aborigines SA Sabah Aborigines
TW Taiwanese Han VN Vietnamese
KN Korean
Source: Table 3, Page 144, S.W. Ballinger et al. (1992)[67]


Masatoshi Nei's standard genetic distances (lower diagonal matrix     ) and modified
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza's distances (above diagonal matrix     ) for the four populations
Hondo-Japanese Korean Ainu Ryukyuan
Hondo-Japanese 0.00354 0.00747 0.00217
Korean 0.00404 0.01155 0.00707
Ainu 0.00808 0.01043 0.00642
Ryukyuan 0.00336 0.00899 0.00696
Source: Table 1, Page 438, Keiichi Omoto & Naruya Saitou (1997)[68]


ABO allele frequencies in Korean, Japanese and German populations.
Population
ABO allele
A(Pro) A(Leu) B O(T) O(A) O2
Korean (n=253) 0.022a,c 0.209c 0.209c 0.360a,e 0.200b 0d
Japanese1 (n=520) 0.071 0.216 0.178 0.273 0.262 0
German2 (n=169) 0.213 0.077 0.047 0.426 0.216 0.021
aKorean versus Japanese, p<0.001. bKorean versus Japanese, p<0.01.
cKorean versus German, p<0.001. dKorean versus German, p<0.01.
eKorean versus German, p<0.05 (Fisher's exact probability test).
1Fukumori et al., 1996. 2Nishimukai et al., 1996.
Source: Table 2, Page 333, Kang Sung-ha et al. (1997)[69]


Penrose's shape distances from six modern Japanese and
Korean male series (used in Noda, 1993) to two Yayoi and
Jomon male series, based on 10 cranial measurements
Northern
Kyushu Yayoi
Northwestern
Kyushu Yayoi
Tsukumo
Jomon
Northwestern
Kyushu Japanese
0.2118 0.5251 0.8388
Northern
Kyushu Japanese
0.1390 0.5792 0.9517
Central Kyushu
Japanese
0.1584 0.6912 1.1920
Kinki Japanese 0.1936 0.5947 1.1084
Kanto Japanese 0.2011 0.6169 0.9968
Korean 0.3368 0.9805 1.5097
Source: Table 6, Page 155, Tomohide Watanabe et al. (2004)[70]


Diversity indices of mtDNA in seven east Asian populations
Haplogroup data Sequence data (HVS-I/IIa)
Gene diversity Gene diversity Pairwise difference Pairwise difference
Korean 0.9239 ± 0.0132 0.9988 ± 0.0007 10.07 ± 4.62 0.039 ± 0.020
Korean-Chinese 0.9357 ± 0.0219 0.9992 ± 0.0041 10.21 ± 4.74 0.039 ± 0.020
Mongolian 0.9454 ± 0.0172 0.9991 ± 0.0046 10.80 ± 5.00 0.042 ± 0.021
Manchurian 0.9462 ± 0.0221 0.9974 ± 0.0063 10.88 ± 5.05 0.042 ± 0.022
Han (Beijing) 0.9526 ± 0.0135 1.0000 ± 0.0056 11.38 ± 5.27 0.044 ± 0.022
Vietnamese 0.9152 ± 0.0290 0.9919 ± 0.0079 9.66 ± 4.52 0.037 ± 0.020
Thai 0.9269 ± 0.0214 1.0000 ± 0.0056 11.53 ± 5.33 0.045 ± 0.023
aHVS-I (hypervariable segment I): np 16024-16365; HVS-II (hypervariable segment II): np 73-340.
Source: Table 3, Page 6, Jin, Tyler-Smith & Kim (2009)[48]


Admixture estimates of Northeast Asians and Southeast Asians in Korean populations
Markers Parental contributions
Northeast Asians
(SDa)
Southeast Asians
(SDa)
MtDNA haplogroups 0.65 (0.25) 0.35 (0.25)
Y-chromosome haplogroups 0.17 (0.14) 0.83 (0.14)
Mt-HG & Y-HG 0.48 (0.21) 0.52 (0.21)
aStandard Deviation
Source: Table 5, Page 8, Jin, Tyler-Smith & Kim (2009)[48]


South Korean Region Samples and Results from Jung Jongsun et al. (2010)
Map of South Korea Regions Sample Name
Regions
(Abbreviations)
Quotes from Jung Jongsun et al. (2010)
from the "Results" Section
Map of South Korea
GU
GU
GR
GR
US
US
JC
JC
YC
YC
CA
CA
PC
PC
GJ
GJ
NJ
NJ
JJ
JJ
Middle West
(MW)
     Korean
Jecheon (JC) "In the genome map, the signals for MW Korea are also close to those for Peking (CHB) in China",
"MW Korea displays an average signal for South Korea",
"in the NJ tree... MW Korea is close to China"
Yeoncheon (YC)
Cheonan (CA)
Pyeongchang (PC)
South East
(SE)
     Korean
Gyeongju (GU) "Certain outliers in Model II (SE Korea) display some similarity to the people of Kobe",
"possible that the outliers in the GU and Kobe (KB) populations could be of Siberian lineage",
"GR and US populations showed average signals in the Korean Peninsula"
Goryeong (GR)
Ulsan (US)
South West
(SW)
     Korean
Gimje (GJ) "(SW Korea) are closer to Mongolians than are the other two regions in the genome map",
"This region also showed connections with populations in Tokyo",
"in the NJ tree, nodes for SW Korea are close to those in Japan"
Naju (NJ)
Jeju (JJ)
Source: Figure 1 (B), part of Table 1 and the Results Section from Jung Jongsun et al. (2010)[33]


Results from analysis of molecular variance for 15 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats
(excluding DYS385a/b in Yfiler) in East Asian populations
Grouping Variance, % (P value)
Between groups Between populations, within groups Within populations
Korean versus SEAa versus NEAb -1.42 (0.86) 2.83 (0.18) 98.59 (0.06)
Korean versus SEA -2.58 (0.71) 3.55 (0.50) 99.04 (0.22)
Korean versus NEA -3.18 (0.34) 6.02 (0.21) 97.16 (0.03)
SEA versus NEA -0.14 (0.54) 0.62 (0.17) 99.52 (0.17)
aSoutheast Asian: Chinese (Yunnan-Han), Indonesian, Filipino, Thai, Vietnamese.
bNortheast Asian: Korean, Japanese, Chinese (Beijing-Han, Manchurian, Mongolian, Xian).
Source: Table 4, Page 9, Kim Soon-hee et al. (2011)[42]


Proportion of membership of Northeast Asians and Southeast Asian in Korean populations
Region Population Ancestry 1a Ancestry 2a N
Far North Yakut 0.99 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03) 25
Oroqen 0.60 (0.12) 0.40 (0.12) 9
Daur 0.48 (0.02) 0.52 (0.02) 9
Hezhen 0.48 (0.11) 0.52 (0.11) 8
Mongolian 0.43 (0.15) 0.57 (0.15) 10
Korean Korean 0.21 (0.02) 0.79 (0.02) 79
Far South She 0.03 (0.02) 0.97 (0.02) 10
Miao 0.06 (0.02) 0.94 (0.02) 10
Lahu 0.03 (0.02) 0.97 (0.02) 8
Dai 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 10
Cambodian 0.09 (0.01) 0.91 (0.01) 10
Total 188
a Mean (SD)
Source: Table 3, Page 361, Kim Young-jin & Jin Han-jun (2013)[34]

Culture

Children's Day in Cheong Wa Dae. South Korean President Park Geun-hye (centre) hugs a boy at a meeting with children invited to Cheong Wa Dae to mark Children's Day on May 5

North Korea and South Korea share a common heritage, but the political division since 1945 has resulted in some divergence of modern culture.

Language

The language of the Korean people is the Korean language, which uses Hangul as its main writing system with some Hanja. There are more than 78 million speakers of the Korean language worldwide.[71]

North Korean data

North Korean soldiers in the Joint Security Area

Estimating the size, growth rate, sex ratio, and age structure of North Korea's population has been extremely difficult. Until release of official data in 1989, the 1963 edition of the North Korea Central Yearbook was the last official publication to disclose population figures. After 1963 demographers used varying methods to estimate the population. They either totalled the number of delegates elected to the Supreme People's Assembly (each delegate representing 50,000 people before 1962 and 30,000 people afterwards) or relied on official statements that a certain number of persons, or percentage of the population, was engaged in a particular activity. Thus, on the basis of remarks made by President Kim Il-sung in 1977 concerning school attendance, the population that year was calculated at 17.2 million persons. During the 1980s, health statistics, including life expectancy and causes of mortality, were gradually made available to the outside world.

In 1989 the Central Bureau of Statistics released demographic data to the United Nations Population Fund in order to secure the UNFPA's assistance in holding North Korea's first nationwide census since the establishment of the state in 1948. Although the figures given to the United Nations might have been distorted, it appears that in line with other attempts to open itself to the outside world, the North Korean regime has also opened somewhat in the demographic realm. Although the country lacks trained demographers, accurate data on household registration, migration, and births and deaths are available to North Korean authorities. According to the United States scholar Nicholas Eberstadt and demographer Brian Ko, vital statistics and personal information on residents are kept by agencies on the ri ("village", the local administrative unit) level in rural areas and the dong ("district" or "block") level in urban areas.

Korean populations

Traditional Korean royal wedding ceremony

Large-scale emigration from Korea began as early as the mid-1860s, mainly into the Russian Far East and Northeast China or what was historically known as Manchuria; these populations would later grow to nearly three million Koreans in China and several hundred thousand Koryo-saram (ethnic Koreans in Central Asia and the former USSR).[72][73] During the Korea under Japanese rule of 1910–1945, Koreans were often recruited and or forced into labour service to work in mainland Japan, Karafuto Prefecture, and Manchukuo; the ones who chose to remain in Japan at the end of the war became known as Zainichi Koreans, while the roughly 40 thousand who were trapped in Karafuto after the Soviet invasion are typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans.[74][75]

Korean emigration to America was known to have begun as early as 1903, but the Korean American community did not grow to a significant size until after the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965; as of 2010, excluding the undocumented and uncounted, roughly 1.7 million Koreans emigrants and people of Korean descent live in the United States according to the official figure by the US Census.[76]

The Greater Los Angeles Area and New York metropolitan area in the United States contain the largest populations of ethnic Koreans outside of Korea or China. Significant Korean populations are present in China, Japan, and Canada as well. There are also Korean communities in Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. During the 1990s and 2000s, the number of Koreans in the Philippines and Koreans in Vietnam have also grown significantly.[77][78] Koreans in the United Kingdom now form Western Europe's largest Korean community, albeit still relatively small; Koreans in Germany used to outnumber those in the UK until the late 1990s. In Australia, Korean Australians comprise a modest minority. Koreans have migrated significantly since the 1960s. Now they form an integral part in society especially in Business, Education and Cultural areas.

The Korean population in the United States represents a small share of the US economy, but has a disproportionately positive impact. Korean Americans have a savings rate double that of the average American and also graduate from college at a rate double that of the average American, providing a highly skilled and educated addition to the U.S. workforce. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's Census 2000 data, mean household earnings for Koreans in the U.S. were $59,981, approximately 5.1% higher than the U.S. average of $56,604.[79]

Part-Korean populations

Pak Noja said that there were 5747 Japanese-Korean mixed couples in Korea at the end of 1941.[80] Pak Cheil estimated there to be 70,000 to 80,000 "semi-Koreans" in Japan in the years immediately after the war.[81]

Mitsuyoshi Nakayama who was a military doctor said that there were a number of Japanese soldiers who married Korean comfort women, but not any of the women could produce children.[82] Chung Seo-woon testified that she was sterilized in a hospital before being taken to Semarang, Indonesia, and forced to have sex with dozens of soldiers and officers everyday as a comfort woman.[83]

See also

References

Citations

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Sources

Further reading

  • Breen, Michael (2004). The Koreans: Who They Are, What They Want, Where Their Future Lies. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-4668-6449-8. 

External links