City of Joy
Cultural Capital of India
  
Location of Kolkata in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°34′21″N 88°21′50″E / 22.5726°N 88.3639°E Country India State West Bengal Division Presidency District Kolkata [A] Government • Type Municipal Corporation • Body Kolkata Municipal Corporation • Mayor Firhad Hakim • Sheriff Ranjit Mallick  • Police commissioner Rajeev Kumar  Area • Megacity 205.00 km (79.150 sq mi) 2 • Metro 1,886.67 km 2 (728.45 sq mi) Elevation 9 m (30 ft) Population • Megacity 4,496,694 • Rank 7th • Density 22,000/km 2 (57,000/sq mi) • Metro 14,112,536 14,617,882 (Extended UA) • Metro rank 3rd Demonyms Kolkatan Calcuttan Time zone UTC+05:30 ( IST) ZIP code(s)
700 001 to 700 162
Area code(s) +91-33 Vehicle registration WB-01 to WB-10, WB-19 to WB-22 UN/LOCODE IN CCU Metro GDP/ PPP $60–150 billion    Official languages Bengali  Website www .kmcgov .in Kolkata ( [kolkata] (, also known as ) listen Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 75 kilometres (47 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy".   According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the  seventh most populous city; the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the suburb population brought the total to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.  
In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the
Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into  an increasingly fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat (local rule), and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.
As a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century
Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, art, film, theatre, and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, and other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods ( paras) and freestyle intellectual exchanges ( adda). West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which also hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports.
Kolkata derives from the Bengali term ( Kôlikata Bengali: কলিকাতা) [ˈkɔlikat̪a], the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city eventually was to be established; the other two villages were Sutanuti and Govindapur.
There are several explanations about the etymology of this name:
Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô [ˈkalikʰːet̪rɔ] ( Bengali: কালীক্ষেত্র), meaning "Field of [the goddess] Kali". Similarly, it can be a variation of 'Kalikshetra' ( Sanskrit: कालीक्षेत्र, lit. "area of Goddess Kali"). Another theory is that the name derives from
Kalighat.  Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term
kilkila ( Bengali: কিলকিলা), or "flat area".  The name may have its origin in the words
khal [ˈkʰal] ( Bengali: খাল) meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa [ˈkata] ( Bengali: কাটা), which may mean "dug".  According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun [ˈkɔlitɕun] ( Bengali: কলি চুন) and coir or kata [ˈkat̪a] ( Bengali: কাতা); hence, it was called Kolikata [ˈkɔlikat̪a] ( Bengali: কলিকাতা). 
Although the city's name has always been pronounced
Kolkata [ˈkolkat̪a] ( Bengali: কলকাতা) or Kôlikata [ˈkɔlikat̪a] ( Bengali: কলিকাতা) in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation.
(It should be noted that "  Calcutt" is an etymologically unrelated place name found at several locations in England.)
The discovery and archaeological study of
Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia.  Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English  East India Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city; In response to a public petition,  the  Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003 that the city does not have a founder. The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages:  Kalikata, Gobindapur, and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village; Sutanuti was a riverside weavers' village. They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor; the (a land grant bestowed by a king on his noblemen) taxation rights to the villages were held by the jagirdari Sabarna Roy Choudhury family of landowners, or . These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. zamindars  :
In 1712, the British completed the construction of
Fort William, located on the east bank of the Hooghly River to protect their trading factory. Facing frequent skirmishes with  French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta. A force of Company soldiers (  ) and British troops led by sepoys Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year. Per the 1765  Treaty of Allahabad following the battle of Buxar, East India company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, while Mughal-appointed Nawabs continued to rule the province. Declared a  presidency city, Calcutta became the headquarters of the East India Company by 1773. In 1793, ruling power of the Nawabs were abolished and East India company took complete control of the city and the province. In the early 19th century, the marshes surrounding the city were drained; the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River.  Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between 1797 and 1805, was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture. Throughout the late 18th and 19th century, the city was a centre of the East India Company's opium trade. 
Panoramic view of Kolkata (Calcutta) from the Shaheed Minar (Octerlony Monument), 1832, drawn by Jacob Janssen
By the 1850s, Calcutta had two areas: White Town, which was primarily British and centred on
Chowringhee and Dalhousie Square; and Black Town, mainly Indian and centred on North Calcutta. The city underwent rapid industrial growth starting in the early 1850s, especially in the textile and jute industries; this encouraged British companies to massively invest in infrastructure projects, which included telegraph connections and  Howrah railway station. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities. babu In the 19th century, the  Bengal Renaissance brought about an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens. In 1883, Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India.
Bengali billboards on Harrison Street. Calcutta was the largest commercial centre in British India.
Map of Calcutta, ca 1914
partition of Bengal in 1905 along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British.  The capital was moved to  New Delhi in 1911. Calcutta continued to be a centre for  revolutionary organisations associated with the Indian independence movement. The city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese between 1942 and 1944, during World War II.  Coinciding with the war, millions starved to death during the  Bengal famine of 1943 due to a combination of military, administrative, and natural factors.  Demands for the creation of a Muslim state led in 1946 to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4,000.   The  partition of India led to further clashes and a demographic shift—many Muslims left for East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh), while hundreds of thousands of Hindus fled into the city.
During the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Marxist–Maoist movement by groups known as the
Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation. The  Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 led to a massive influx of thousands of refugees, many of them penniless, that strained Kolkata's infrastructure. During the mid-1980s,  Mumbai (then called Bombay) overtook Kolkata as India's most populous city. In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes. In the period 1977–2011, West Bengal was governed from Kolkata by the  Left Front, which was dominated by the Communist Party of India (CPM). It was the world's longest-serving democratically elected communist government, during which Kolkata was a key base for Indian communism.   In the  West Bengal Legislative Assembly election, 2011, Left Front was defeated by the Trinamool Congress. The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after the 1990s, when India began to institute pro-market reforms. Since 2000, the information technology (IT) services sector has revitalised Kolkata's stagnant economy. The city is also experiencing marked growth in its manufacturing base.
Kolkata Skyline from Howrah.
Spread roughly north–south along the east bank of the Hooghly River, Kolkata sits within the lower
Ganges Delta of eastern India approximately 75 km (47 mi) west of the international border with Bangladesh; the city's elevation is 1.5–9 m (5–30 ft). Much of the city was originally a wetland that was reclaimed over the decades to accommodate a burgeoning population.  The remaining undeveloped areas, known as the  East Kolkata Wetlands, were designated a "wetland of international importance" by the Ramsar Convention (1975). As with most of the  Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. Kolkata is located over the "Bengal basin", a pericratonic tertiary basin. Bengal basin comprises three structural units: shelf or platform in the west; central hinge or shelf/slope break; and deep basinal part in the east and southeast. Kolkata is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about 25 km (16 mi) wide at a depth of about 45,000 m (148,000 ft) below the surface.  The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata is nearly 7,500 m (24,600 ft) above the  crystalline basement; of these the top 350–450 m (1,150–1,480 ft) is Quaternary, followed by 4,500–5,500 m (14,760–18,040 ft) of Tertiary sediments, 500–700 m (1,640–2,300 ft) trap wash of Cretaceous trap and 600–800 m (1,970–2,620 ft) Permian- Carboniferous Gondwana rocks. The quaternary sediments consist of clay, silt, and several grades of sand and gravel. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of 250–650 m (820–2,130 ft); the upper one 10–40 m (30–130 ft) in thickness.  According to the  Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the city lies inside seismic zone III.
Kolkata metropolitan area is spread over 1,886.67 km 2 (728.45 sq mi)  : and comprises 3 7 municipal corporations (including Kolkata Municipal Corporation), 39 local municipalities and 24 panchayat samitis, as of 2011 .  : The urban agglomeration encompassed 72 cities and 527 towns and villages, as of 2006 . 7 Suburban areas in the  Kolkata metropolitan area incorporate parts of the following districts: North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly, and Nadia.  : Kolkata, which is under the jurisdiction of the 15 Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), has an area of 185 km 2 (71 sq mi). The east–west dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the  Hooghly River in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass in the east—a span of 9–10 km (5.6–6.2 mi). The north–south distance is greater, and its axis is used to section the city into North, Central, and South Kolkata. East Kolkata is also a section.
Kolkata riverfront at night
North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city. Characterised by 19th-century architecture, dilapidated buildings, overpopulated slums, crowded
bazaars, and narrow alleyways, it includes areas such as Shyambazar, Hatibagan, Maniktala, Kankurgachi, Rajabazar, Shobhabazar, Shyampukur, Sonagachi, Kumortuli, Bagbazar, Jorasanko, Chitpur, Pathuriaghata, Cossipore, Kestopur, Sinthee, Belgachia, Jorabagan and Dum Dum.  : The northern suburban areas like 65–66 Baranagar, Durganagar, Noapara, Dunlop, Dakshineswar, Nagerbazar, Belghoria, Agarpara, Sodepur, Madhyamgram, Hridaypur, Barasat, Birati, Khardah, Titagarh and Barrackpur are also within the city of Kolkata (as a metropolitan structure).
Central Kolkata hosts the central business district. It contains
B. B. D. Bagh, formerly known as Dalhousie Square, and the Esplanade on its east; Strand Road is on its west. The  West Bengal Secretariat, General Post Office, Reserve Bank of India, High Court, Lalbazar Police Headquarters, and several other government and private offices are located there. Another business hub is the area south of Park Street, which comprises thoroughfares such as Chowringhee, Camac Street, Wood Street, Loudon Street, Shakespeare Sarani, and A. J. C. Bose Road. The  Maidan is a large open field in the heart of the city that has been called the "lungs of Kolkata" and accommodates sporting events and public meetings.  The  Victoria Memorial and Kolkata Race Course are located at the southern end of the Maidan. Other important areas of Central Kolkata are Park Circus, Burrabazar, College Street, Sealdah, Taltala, Janbazar, Bowbazar, Entally, Chandni Chowk, Lalbazar, Chowringhee, Dharmatala, Tiretta Bazar, Bow Barracks, Mullick Bazar, Babughat etc. Among the other parks are Central Park in Bidhannagar and Millennium Park on Strand Road, along the Hooghly River.
South Kolkata developed after India gained independence in 1947; it includes upscale neighbourhoods such as
Ballygunge, Alipore, New Alipore, Lansdowne, Bhowanipore, Kalighat, Ajoy Nagar, Dhakuria, Gariahat, Charu Market, Tollygunge, Chetla, Naktala, Jodhpur Park, Lake Gardens, Golf Green, Regent Park, Jadavpur, Garfa, Kalikapur, Haltu, Nandi Bagan, Santoshpur, Baghajatin, Chak Garia, New Garia, Garia, Ramgarh, Raipur, Kanungo Park, Ranikuthi, Bikramgarh, Bijoygarh, Bansdroni, Kudghat, Dhalai Bridge, Model Town, Netaji Nagar, Panchpota, Techno City, Tentulberia and Baishnabghata Patuli. Outlying areas of South Kolkata include  Ekbalpur, Haridevpur, Hastings, Rajabagan, Watgunge, Garden Reach, Khidirpur, Metiabruz, Taratala, Bartala, BNR Colony, Majerhat, Behala, Sarsuna, Joka, Barisha, Parnasree Pally, Thakurpukur, Maheshtala, Batanagar, Nungi, Budge Budge and Pujali. The southern suburban neighbourhoods like Mahamayatala, Pratapgarh, Kamalgazi, Narendrapur, Rajpur Sonarpur, Harinavi, Subhashgram, Mallikpur and Baruipur are also within the city of Kolkata (as metropolitan, urban agglomeration area). Fort William, on the western part of the city, houses the headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army; its premises are under the jurisdiction of the army.
East Kolkata is largely composed of newly developed areas and neighbourhoods of
Saltlake, Rajarhat, Tangra, Topsia, Kasba, Anandapur, Mukundapur, Picnic Garden, Beleghata, Ultadanga, Phoolbagan, Kaikhali, Lake Town, etc.
Two planned townships in the greater Kolkata region are Bidhannagar, also known as Salt Lake City and located north-east of the city; and Rajarhat, also called New Town and sited east of Bidhannagar.  In the 2000s, Sector V in Bidhannagar developed into a business hub for information technology and telecommunication companies.   Both Bidhannagar and New Town are situated outside the Kolkata Municipal Corporation limits, in their own municipalities. 
Kolkata is subject to a
tropical wet-and-dry climate that is designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "very high damage risk".
The annual mean temperature is 26.8 °C (80.2 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 19–30 °C (66–86 °F). Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.
Winter lasts for roughly two-and-a-half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 9–11 °C (48–52 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, with daily temperatures ranging from 27–37 °C (81–99 °F); January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 12–23 °C (54–73 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 43.9 °C (111.0 °F), and the lowest is 5 °C (41 °F).  The winter is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the city throughout this season.
Often, in April–June, the city is struck by heavy rains or dusty squalls that are followed by thunderstorms or hailstorms, bringing cooling relief from the prevailing humidity. These thunderstorms are  convective in nature, and are known locally as kal bôishakhi ( কালবৈশাখী), or "Nor'westers" in English.
Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the
south-west summer monsoon lash Kolkata between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of about 1,850 mm (73 in). The highest monthly rainfall total occurs in July and August. In these months often incessant rain for days brings life to a stall for the city dwellers. The city receives 2,528 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum  sunlight exposure occurring in March. Kolkata has been hit by several cyclones; these include systems occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed thousands.  
Climate data for Kolkata ( Alipore) 1971–1990
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days
(≥ 1.0 mm)
relative humidity (%)
Source #1: NOAA
Source #2: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)
Pollution is a major concern in Kolkata. As of 2008
sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide annual concentration were within the national ambient air quality standards of India, but respirable suspended particulate matter levels were high, and on an increasing trend for five consecutive years, causing smog and haze.  Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer. 
Reserve Bank of India building, Kolkata
Flower hawkers in a road side markt
Kolkata is the main commercial and financial hub of East and North-East India and home to the  Calcutta Stock Exchange.  It is a major commercial and military port, and is the only city in eastern India, apart from Bhubaneswar to have an international airport. Once India's leading city, Kolkata experienced a steady economic decline in the decades following India's independence due to steep population increases and a rise in militant  trade-unionism, which included frequent strikes that were backed by left-wing parties. From the 1960s to the late 1990s, several factories were closed and businesses relocated.  The lack of capital and resources added to the depressed state of the city's economy and gave rise to an unwelcome sobriquet: the "dying city".  The city's fortunes improved after the  Indian economy was liberalised in the 1990s and changes in economic policy were enacted by the West Bengal state government.
Flexible production has been the norm in Kolkata, which has an
informal sector that employs more than 40% of the labour force. One unorganised group,  roadside hawkers, generated business worth ₹ 8,772 crore ( US$ 2 billion) in 2005. As of 2001 , around 0.81% of the city's workforce was employed in the  primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 15.49% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 83.69% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).  : As of 2003 , the majority of households in slums were engaged in occupations belonging to the informal sector; 36.5% were involved in servicing the urban middle class (as maids, drivers, etc.), and 22.2% were 19 casual labourers.  : About 34% of the available labour force in Kolkata slums were unemployed. 11  : According to one estimate, almost a quarter of the population live on less than 27 rupees (equivalent to 45 US cents) per day. 11 As of 2010 , Kolkata, with an estimated gross domestic product (GDP) by  purchasing power parity of 150 billion dollars, ranked third among South Asian cities, after Mumbai and Delhi. Kolkata's GDP in 2014 was Rs 1.84 trillion, according to a collaborative assessment by multiple universities and climate agencies.  As in many other Indian cities, information technology became a high-growth sector in Kolkata starting in the late 1990s; the city's IT sector grew at 70% per annum—a rate that was twice the national average.  The 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail, and hospitality sectors;  several large shopping malls and hotels were launched.     Companies such as  ITC Limited, CESC Limited, Exide Industries, Emami, Eveready Industries India, Lux Industries, Rupa Company, Berger Paints, Birla Corporation and Britannia Industries are headquartered in the city. Philips India, PricewaterhouseCoopers India, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Steel have their registered office and zonal headquarters in Kolkata.
Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India; and a private bank Bandhan Bank. Reserve Bank of India has its eastern zonal office in Kolkata, and India Government Mint, Kolkata is one of the four mints in India.
A slum area of the city
demonym for residents of Kolkata are Calcuttan and Kolkatan.  According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, Kolkata district, which occupies an area of 185 km  2 (71 sq mi), had a population of
4,486,679; its population density was 24,252/km  2 (62,810/sq mi). This represents a decline of 1.88% during the decade 2001–11. The  sex ratio is 899 females per 1000 males—lower than the national average. The ratio is depressed by the influx of working males from surrounding rural areas, from the rest of West Bengal; these men commonly leave their families behind.  Kolkata's literacy rate of 87.14%  exceeds the national average of 74%.  The final population totals of census 2011 stated the population of city as 4,496,694.  The urban agglomeration had a population of 14,112,536 in 2011. 
Bengali Hindus form the majority of Kolkata's population; Marwaris, Biharis and Muslims compose large minorities. Among  Kolkata's smaller communities are Chinese, Tamils, Nepalis, Odias, Telugus, Assamese, Gujaratis, Anglo-Indians, Armenians, Greeks, Tibetans, Maharashtrians, Konkanis, Malayalees, Punjabis, and Parsis.  : The number of Armenians, Greeks, 3 Jews, and other foreign-origin groups declined during the 20th century. The  Jewish population of Kolkata was 5,000 during World War II, but declined after Indian independence and the establishment of Israel; by 2013, there were 25 Jews in the city.  India's sole  Chinatown is in eastern Kolkata; once home to 20,000 ethnic Chinese, its population dropped to around 2,000 as of 2009  as a result of multiple factors including repatriation and denial of Indian citizenship following the 1962  Sino-Indian War, and immigration to foreign countries for better economic opportunities. The Chinese community traditionally worked in the local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants.  
Kolkata urban agglomeration population growth
Source: Census of India
 Bengali, the official state language, is the dominant language in Kolkata. English is also used, particularly by the white-collar workforce.  Hindi and Urdu are spoken by a sizeable minority.  According to the 2011 census, 76.51% of the population is  Hindu, 20.60% Muslim, 0.88% Christian, and 0.47% Jain. The remainder of the population includes  Sikhs, Buddhists, and other religions which accounts for 0.45% of the population; 1.09% did not state a religion in the census. Kolkata reported 67.6% of  Special and Local Laws crimes registered in 35 large Indian cities during 2004. The Kolkata police district registered 15,510  Indian Penal Code cases in 2010, the 8th-highest total in the country. In 2010, the crime rate was 117.3 per 100,000, below the national rate of 187.6; it was the lowest rate among India's largest cities. 
As of 2003
squatter-occupied and 2,011 registered slums.  : 4  : The authorised slums (with access to basic services like water, latrines, trash removal by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation) can be broadly divided into two groups— 92 bustees, in which slum dwellers have some long term tenancy agreement with the landowners; and udbastu colonies, settlements which had been leased to refugees from present-day Bangladesh by the Government.   : The 5 unauthorised slums (devoid of basic services provided by the municipality) are occupied by squatters who started living on encroached lands—mainly along canals, railway lines and roads.  : 92  : According to the 2005 National Family Health Survey, around 14% of the households in Kolkata were poor, while 33% lived in slums, indicating a substantial proportion of households in slum areas were better off economically than the bottom quarter of urban households in terms of wealth status. 5  : 23 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding and working with the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata—an organisation "whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after".
, about one-third of the population, or 1.5 million people, lived in 3,500 unregistered
Government and public services
Kolkata is administered by several government agencies. The
Kolkata Municipal Corporation, or KMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 15 boroughs, which together encompass 141 wards. Each ward elects a councillor to the KMC. Each borough has a committee of councillors, each of whom is elected to represent a ward. By means of the borough committees, the corporation undertakes urban planning and maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and municipal markets.  As Kolkata's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and ten other elected members of the KMC.  The functions of the KMC include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, street lighting, and building regulation. 
Kolkata Municipal Corporation was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 4.0 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.
The Kolkata Port Trust, an agency of the central government, manages the city's river port. As of 2012
All India Trinamool Congress controls the KMC; the mayor is Firhad Hakim, while the deputy mayor is Atin Ghosh. The city has an apolitical  titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata, which presides over various city-related functions and conferences.
Kolkata's administrative agencies have areas of jurisdiction that do not coincide. Listed in ascending order by area, they are:
Kolkata district; the Kolkata Police area and the Kolkata Municipal Corporation area, or "Kolkata city"; and the  Kolkata metropolitan area, which is the city's urban agglomeration. The agency overseeing the latter, the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, is responsible for the statutory planning and development of greater Kolkata.
As the seat of the
Government of West Bengal, Kolkata is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies, but also the West Bengal Legislative Assembly; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Writers' Building; and the Calcutta High Court. Most government establishments and institutions are housed in the centre of the city in B. B. D. Bagh (formerly known as Dalhousie Square). The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. It was preceded by the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William which was established in 1774. The Calcutta High Court has jurisdiction over the state of West Bengal and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Kolkata has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the City Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.   The  Kolkata Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the West Bengal Ministry of Home Affairs.  The Kolkata district elects two representatives to India's lower house, the  Lok Sabha, and 11 representatives to the state legislative assembly.
Kolkata Municipal Corporation supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Hooghly River; most of it is treated and purified at the Palta pumping station located in North 24 Parganas district.  Roughly 95% of the 4,000 tonnes of refuse produced daily by the city is transported to the dumping grounds in  Dhapa, which is east of the town.  To promote the recycling of garbage and sewer water, agriculture is encouraged on the dumping grounds.  Parts of the city lack proper sewerage, leading to unsanitary methods of waste disposal. 
Electricity is supplied by the privately operated
Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation, or CESC, to the city proper; the West Bengal State Electricity Board supplies it in the suburbs.  Fire services are handled by the  West Bengal Fire Service, a state agency. As of 2012 , the city had 16 fire stations. 
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.  : 25–26 : with Kolkata being the first city in India to have cell phone and 179 4G connectivity, the GSM and CDMA cellular coverage is extensive.  As of 2010 , Kolkata has 7 percent of the total Broadband internet consumers in India; BSNL, VSNL, Tata Indicom, Sify, Airtel, and Reliance are among the main vendors.  
Military and diplomatic establishments
Eastern Command of the Indian Army is based in the city.
Being one of India's major city and the largest city in eastern and north-eastern India, Kolkata hosts diplomatic missions of many countries such as Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Canada, People's Republic of China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Srilanka, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States. The U.S Consulate in Kolkata is the US Department of State's second oldest Consulate and dates from 19 November 1792.
A road in Kolkata showing buses, taxis,
, cars, and other modes of road transport
Public transport is provided by the
Kolkata Suburban Railway, the Kolkata Metro, trams, rickshaws, and buses. The suburban rail network reaches the city's distant suburbs.
According to a 2013 survey conducted by the
International Association of Public Transport, in terms of a public transport system, Kolkata ranks among the top of the six Indian cities surveyed.  The  Kolkata Metro, in operation since 1984, is the oldest underground mass transit system in India. It spans the north–south length of the city and covers a distance of 25.1 km (16 mi).  As of 2009 , five Metro rail lines were under construction.  Kolkata has four long-distance railway stations, located at  Howrah (the largest railway complex in India), Sealdah, Chitpur and Shalimar, which connect Kolkata by rail to most cities in West Bengal and to other major cities in India. The city serves as the headquarters of three railway Zone out of Seventeen of the  Indian Railways regional divisions—the Kolkata Metro Railways, Eastern Railway and the South-Eastern Railway. Kolkata has rail and road connectivity with  Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.  
 Buses, which are the most commonly used mode of transport, are run by government agencies and private operators. Kolkata is the only Indian city with a tram network, which is operated by the  Calcutta Tramways Company. The slow-moving tram services are restricted to certain areas of the city. Water-logging, caused by heavy rains that fall during the  summer monsoon, can interrupt transportation networks.  Hired public conveyances include  auto rickshaws, which often ply specific routes, and yellow metered taxis. Almost all of Kolkata's taxis are antiquated Hindustan Ambassadors by make; newer air-conditioned radio taxis are in service as well.  In parts of the city,  cycle rickshaws and hand-pulled rickshaws are patronised by the public for short trips.
Due to its diverse and abundant public transportation, privately owned vehicles are not as common in Kolkata as in other major Indian cities.
The city has witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years.  As of 2004 , after adjusting for population density, the city's "road space" was only 6% compared to 23% in Delhi and 17% in Mumbai.  The  Kolkata Metro has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers. Agencies operating long-distance bus services include the Calcutta State Transport Corporation, the South Bengal State Transport Corporation, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation, and various private operators. The city's main bus terminals are located at Esplanade and Babughat. The Kolkata–Delhi and Kolkata–Chennai prongs of the  Golden Quadrilateral, and National Highway 34 start from the city.
 Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, located in Dum Dum some 16 km (9.9 mi) north-east of the city centre, operates domestic and international flights. In 2013, the airport was upgraded to handle increased air traffic. 
Port of Kolkata, established in 1870, is India's oldest and the only major river port. The Kolkata Port Trust manages docks in Kolkata and  Haldia. The port hosts passenger services to  Port Blair, capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; freighter service to ports throughout India and around the world is operated by the Shipping Corporation of India.  Ferry services connect Kolkata with its twin city of  Howrah, located across the Hooghly River. 
The route from
North Bengal to Kolkata is set to become cheaper and more efficient for people travelling by bus. Through April 2017 to March 2018, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation (NBSTC) will be introducing a fleet of rocket buses equipped with bio-toilets for the bus route.
Calcutta Medical College
, the second institution in Asia to teach modern medicine(after 'Ecole de Médicine de Pondichéry')
As of 2011
Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, and 366 private medical establishments; these establishments provide the city with 27,687 hospital beds.  For every 10,000 people in the city, there are 61.7 hospital beds,  which is higher than the national average of 9 hospital beds per 10,000.  Ten  medical and dental colleges are located in the Kolkata metropolitan area which act as tertiary referral hospitals in the state.  The  Calcutta Medical College, founded in 1835, was the first institution in Asia to teach modern medicine. However, These facilities are inadequate to meet the healthcare needs of the city.    More than 78% in Kolkata prefer the private medical sector over the public medical sector,   : due to the poor quality of care, the lack of a nearby facility, and excessive waiting times at government facilities. 109  :
, the health care system in Kolkata consists of 48 government hospitals, mostly under the
According to the Indian 2005 National Family Health Survey, only a small proportion of Kolkata households were covered under any health scheme or
health insurance.  : The 41 total fertility rate in Kolkata was 1.4, The lowest among the eight cities surveyed.  : In Kolkata, 77% of the married women used 45 contraceptives, which was the highest among the cities surveyed, but use of modern contraceptive methods was the lowest (46%).  : The 47 infant mortality rate in Kolkata was 41 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was 49 per 1,000 live births.  :
Among the surveyed cities, Kolkata stood second (5%) for children who had not had any vaccinations under the
Universal Immunization Programme as of 2005 .  : Kolkata ranked second with access to an 48 centre under the anganwadi Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme for 57% of the children between 0 and 71 months.  : The proportion of 51 malnourished, anaemic and underweight children in Kolkata was less in comparison to other surveyed cities.  :
About 18% of the men and 30% of the women in Kolkata are
obese—the majority of them belonging to the non-poor strata of society.  : In 2005, Kolkata had the highest percentage (55%) among the surveyed cities of 105 anaemic women, while 20% of the men in Kolkata were anaemic.  : Diseases like 56–57 diabetes, asthma, goitre and other thyroid disorders were found in large numbers of people.  : Tropical diseases like 57–59 malaria, dengue and are prevalent in Kolkata, though their incidence is decreasing. chikungunya  Kolkata is one of the districts in India with  a high number of people with AIDS; it has been designated a district prone to high risk. 
As of 2014, because of
higher air pollution, the life expectancy of a person born in the city is four years fewer than in the suburbs.
Kolkata's schools are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious.
Bengali and English are the primary languages of instruction; Urdu and Hindi are also used, particularly in central Kolkata.  Schools in Kolkata follow the  "10+2+3" plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science. Vocational programs are also available.  Some Kolkata schools, for example  La Martiniere Calcutta, Calcutta Boys' School, St. James' School (Kolkata), St. Xavier's Collegiate School, and Loreto House, have been ranked amongst the best schools in the country. 
As of 2010
The colleges are each affiliated with a university or institution based either in Kolkata or elsewhere in India.  Aliah University which was founded in 1780 as Mohammedan College of Calcutta is the oldest post-secondary educational institution of the city. The  University of Calcutta, founded in 1857, is the first modern university in South Asia.  Presidency College, Kolkata (formerly Hindu College between 1817 and 1855), founded in 1855, was one of the oldest and most eminent colleges in India. It was affiliated with the University of Calcutta until 2010 when it was converted to Presidency University, Kolkata in 2010. Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU) is the second oldest engineering institution of the country located in Howrah. An  Institute of National Importance, BESU was converted to India's first IIEST. Jadavpur University is known for its arts, science, and engineering faculties. The  Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, which was the first of the Indian Institutes of Management, was established in 1961 at Joka, a locality in the south-western suburbs. Kolkata also houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which was started here in the year 2006. The  West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences is one of India's autonomous law schools,  and the  Indian Statistical Institute is a public research institute and university. State owned Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal (MAKAUT, WB), formerly West Bengal University of Technology (WBUT) is the largest Technological University in terms of student enrollment and number of Institutions affiliated by it. Private institutions include the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute and University of Engineering & Management (UEM).
, the Kolkata urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the state government.
Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in Kolkata include physicists
Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha, and  Jagadish Chandra Bose; chemist  Prafulla Chandra Roy; statisticians  Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Anil Kumar Gain; physician  Upendranath Brahmachari; educator  Ashutosh Mukherjee; and Nobel laureates  Rabindranath Tagore,  C. V. Raman, and  Amartya Sen.
Kolkata houses many premier research institutes like
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences (SNBNCBS), Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) and Indian Centre for Space Physics. Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in IACS.
The National Library of India
Kolkata is known for its literary, artistic, and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought.
Kolkata has been called the "City of Furious, Creative Energy"  as well as the "cultural [or literary] capital of India".   The presence of  , which are neighbourhoods that possess a strong sense of community, is characteristic of the city. paras Typically, each  para has its own community club and, on occasion, a playing field. Residents engage in  , or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation. addas  The city has a tradition of political  graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures, and propaganda. 
Kolkata has many buildings adorned with
Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architectural motifs. Several well-maintained major buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures"; others are in various stages of decay.   Established in 1814 as the nation's oldest museum, the  Indian Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art.  Marble Palace is a classic example of a European mansion that was built in the city. The Victoria Memorial, a place of interest in Kolkata, has a museum documenting the city's history. The National Library of India is the leading public library in the country while Science City is the largest science centre in the Indian subcontinent.
The popularity of commercial theatres in the city has declined since the 1980s.
 : 99  Group theatres of Kolkata, a cultural movement that started in the 1940s contrasting with the then-popular commercial theatres, are theatres that are not professional or commercial, and are centres of various experiments in theme, content, and production; group theatres use the  proscenium stage to highlight socially relevant messages.  : 99  Chitpur locality of the city houses multiple production companies of , a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal. jatra  Kolkata is the home of the  Bengali cinema industry, dubbed "Tollywood" for Tollygunj, where most of the state's film studios are located.  Its long tradition of art films includes globally acclaimed film directors such as Academy Award-winning director Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Tapan Sinha, and contemporary directors such as Aparna Sen, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Goutam Ghose and Rituparno Ghosh.
During the 19th and 20th centuries,
Bengali literature was modernised through the works of authors such as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, Kazi Nazrul Islam, and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Coupled with social reforms led by  Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda, and others, this constituted a major part of the Bengal Renaissance. The middle and latter parts of the 20th century witnessed the arrival of post-modernism, as well as literary movements such as those espoused by the  movement, Kallol hungryalists and the little magazines. Large majority of publishers of the city is concentrated in and around  College Street, "... a half-mile of bookshops and bookstalls spilling over onto the pavement", selling new and used books.
 Kalighat painting originated in 19th century Kolkata as a local style that reflected a variety of themes including mythology and quotidian life. The  Government College of Art and Craft, founded in 1864, has been the cradle as well as workplace of eminent artists including Abanindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, and Nandalal Bose. The art college was the birthplace of the  Bengal school of art that arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the prevalent academic art styles in the early 20th century.  The  Academy of Fine Arts and other art galleries hold regular art exhibitions. The city is recognised for its appreciation of (songs written by Rabindranath Tagore) and Rabindra sangeet Indian classical music, with important concerts and recitals, such as Dover Lane Music Conference, being held throughout the year; Bengali popular music, including , baul folk ballads , and kirtans festival music; and modern music, including Bengali-language Gajan adhunik songs.  Since the early 1990s,  new genres have emerged, including one comprising alternative folk–rock Bengali bands. Another new style,  jibonmukhi gaan ("songs about life"), is based on realism.  : Key elements of 105 Kolkata's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as machher jhol, which can be accompanied by desserts such as  , roshogolla , and a sweet yoghurt known as sandesh . Bengal's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of mishti dohi , a fish that is a favourite among Calcuttans. Street foods such as ilish (fried battered eggplant slices), beguni (flatbread roll with vegetable or chicken, mutton, or egg stuffing), kati roll (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce) and phuchka Indian Chinese cuisine from Chinatown are popular.   
Though Bengali women traditionally wear the
, the sari and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women. shalwar kameez Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional  and dhoti are seen during festivals. kurta Durga Puja, held in September–October, is Kolkata's most important and largest festival; it is an occasion for glamorous celebrations and artistic decorations.  The Bengali New Year, known as  Poila Boishak, as well as the harvest festival of Poush Parbon are among the city's other festivals; also celebrated are Kali Puja, Diwali, Holi, Jagaddhatri Puja, Saraswati Puja, Rathayatra, Janmashtami, Maha Shivratri, Vishwakarma Puja, Lakshmi Puja, Ganesh Chathurthi, Makar Sankranti, Gajan, Kalpataru Day, Bhai Phonta, Maghotsab, Eid, Muharram, Christmas, Buddha Purnima and Mahavir Jayanti. Cultural events include the Rabindra Jayanti, Independence Day(15 August), Republic Day(26 January), Kolkata Book Fair, the Dover Lane Music Festival, the Kolkata Film Festival, Nandikar's National Theatre Festival, Statesman Vintage & Classic Car Rally and Gandhi Jayanti.
The first newspaper in India, the
started publishing from the city in 1780. Bengal Gazette Among Kolkata's widely circulated Bengali-language newspapers are  , Anandabazar Patrika , Bartaman , Sangbad Pratidin , Aajkaal and Dainik Statesman . Ganashakti  and The Statesman are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from Kolkata. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Kolkata include The Telegraph , The Times of India , Hindustan Times , The Hindu , and the The Indian Express . Asian Age As the largest trading centre in East India, Kolkata has several high-circulation financial dailies, including  , The Economic Times , The Financial Express , and Business Line . Business Standard  Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the  Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, Odia, Punjabi, and Chinese languages, are read by minorities.  Major periodicals based in Kolkata include  , Desh , Sananda , Saptahik Bartaman , Unish-Kuri , and Anandalok . Anandamela Historically, Kolkata has been the centre of the  Bengali little magazine movement. 
All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM radio stations in the city. Kolkata has  12 local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR. India's state-owned television broadcaster,  Doordarshan, provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels, while a mix of Bengali, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via  cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television.    Bengali-language 24-hour television news channels include ABP Ananda, Tara Newz, Kolkata TV, 24 Ghanta, News Time and Channel 10.
The most popular sports in Kolkata are
football and cricket. Unlike most parts of India, the residents show significant passion for football. The city is home to top national football clubs such as  Mohun Bagan A.C., East Bengal F.C., Prayag United S.C., and the Mohammedan Sporting Club.   Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia. Mohun Bagan A.C., one of the oldest football clubs in Asia, is the only organisation to be dubbed a "National Club of India".   Football matches between Mohun Bagan and East Bengal, dubbed as the  Kolkata derby, witness large audience attendance and rivalry between patrons.
As in the rest of India, cricket is popular in Kolkata and is played on grounds and in streets throughout the city.
 Kolkata has the  Indian Premier League franchise Kolkata Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city. Kolkata also has an Indian Super League franchise known as Atlético de Kolkata. Tournaments, especially those involving cricket, football, badminton, and carrom, are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis. The  Maidan, a vast field that serves as the city's largest park, hosts several minor football and cricket clubs and coaching institutes.
 Eden Gardens, which has a capacity of 68,000 as of 2017 , hosted the final match of the  1987 Cricket World Cup. It is home to the Bengal cricket team and the Kolkata Knight Riders.
Salt Lake Stadium, also known as Yuva Bharati Krirangan, is India's largest stadium by seating capacity. Most matches of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup were played in the Salt Lake Stadium including both Semi-Final matches and the Final match. Kolkata also accounted for 45% of total attendance in 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup with an average of 55,345 spectators. The  Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world. 
Netaji Indoor Stadium served as host of the 1981 Asian Basketball Championship, where India's national basketball team finished 5th, ahead of teams that belong to Asia's basketball elite, such as Iran. The city has three 18-hole golf courses. The oldest is at the Royal Calcutta Golf Club, the first golf club built outside the United Kingdom.  The other two are located at the  Tollygunge Club and at Fort William. The Royal Calcutta Turf Club hosts horse racing and polo matches. The  Calcutta Polo Club is considered the oldest extant polo club in the world.   The  Calcutta Racket Club is a squash and racquet club in Kolkata. It was founded in 1793, making it one of the oldest rackets clubs in the world, and the first in the Indian subcontinent.  The  Calcutta South Club is a venue for national and international tennis tournaments; it held the first grass-court national championship in 1946.  In the period 2005–2007,  Sunfeast Open, a tier-III tournament on the Women's Tennis Association circuit, was held in the Netaji Indoor Stadium; it has since been discontinued. 
Calcutta Rowing Club hosts rowing heats and training events. Kolkata, considered the leading centre of rugby union in India, gives its name to the oldest international tournament in rugby union, the Calcutta Cup.   The Automobile Association of Eastern India, established in 1904,   and the Bengal Motor Sports Club are involved in promoting motor sports and car rallies in Kolkata and West Bengal.   The  Beighton Cup, an event organised by the Bengal Hockey Association and first played in 1895, is India's oldest field hockey tournament; it is usually held on the Mohun Bagan Ground of the Maidan.  Athletes from Kolkata include  Sourav Ganguly and Pankaj Roy, who are former captains of the Indian national cricket team; Olympic tennis bronze medallist Leander Paes, golfer Arjun Atwal, and former footballers Sailen Manna, Chuni Goswami, P. K. Banerjee, and Subrata Bhattacharya.
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