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Kiwaian languages

Kiwaian
Geographic
distribution
New Guinea
Linguistic classificationa primary language family
Glottologkiwa1251[1]
Kiwaian languages.svg
Map: The Kiwaian languages of New Guinea
  The Kiwaian languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kiwaian languages form a language family of New Guinea. They are a dialect cluster of half a dozen closely related languages.[2] They are grammatically divergent from the Trans–New Guinea languages, and typically have singular, dual, trial, and plural pronouns.

Languages

Kiwaian languages and respective demographic information listed by Evans (2018) are provided below.[3]

List of Kiwaian languages
Language Location Population Alternate names
Southern Kiwai Kiwai Rural LLG 20,000 Island Kiwai
Wabuda Kiwai Rural LLG 2,750
Bamu south Bamu Rural LLG 6,310
Northeast Kiwai West Kikori Rural LLG 6,000 Urama
Kerewo West Kikori Rural LLG 1,090
Morigi West Kikori Rural LLG ?

Pronouns

Pronouns are,

sg pl
1 *mo['o] *nimo
2 *[o]ro *nigo
3 *nou *nei

None of these reflect proto-TNG pronouns. However, Kiwaian languages have basic TNG lexical words like body-part terms.

Classification

The Trans–New Guinea identity of Kiwaiian is supported by a relatively large number of basic lexical items. Ross (2005) tentatively linked Kiwaiian to the erstwhile language isolate Porome. However, the evidence is only two pronouns, and the connection has not been accepted by other researchers.

Evolution

Kiwaian reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[4]

Southern Kiwai language:

  • magota ‘mouth’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • amo ‘breast < *amu
  • gare ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k(V]
  • pitu ‘fingernail’ < *mb(i,u)t(i,u)[C]
  • baba ‘father’ < *mbapa
  • sagana ‘moon’ < *takVn[V]
  • tuwo ‘ashes’ < *sumbu
  • era ‘tree’ < *inda
  • nimo ‘louse’ < *niman
  • epuru ‘head’ < *kV(mb,p)utu
  • kopu ‘short’ < *kutu(p,mb)a
  • abida ‘sister’ < *pi(n,nd)a

Other languages:

  • Waboda kepuru < *kV(mb,p)utu
  • Kerewo bena ‘shoulder’ < *mbena ‘arm’
  • Morigi kota ‘leg’ < *k(a,o)ndok[V],
  • N.E. Kiwai modi ‘nose’ < *mundu
  • Bamu kukamu ‘cold’ < *kukam(o,u)

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kiwaian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ [sites.google.com]
  3. ^ Evans, Nicholas (2018). "The languages of Southern New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 641–774. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.