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Kingdom of Tondo

Kingdom of Tondo
ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Kaharian ng Tondo
Personal union with Namayan through its leaders (1175–1571)[1]
c. before 900 (LCI-last historical reference)[3]–1589[2]
The district of Tondo, highlighted in blue on a Detail of the 1819 Map "Plano de la ciudad de Manila, capital de las Yslas Filipinas," prepared by Francisco Xavier de Herrera lo Grabó for the Manila Land Survey Year of 1819. The consensus among contemporary historiographers[4] is that the location of the district during the Spanish colonial period approximates the location of the archaic polity of Tondo.[5]
Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila)[3]
Languages Old Tagalog,[6] Kapampangan[1] (local languages)

Old Malay,[7] Middle Chinese (trade languages)
Religion Hinduism,[8] Buddhism,[8][9] Folk religion and Islam
Government Monarchy[10] (Barangay)[5]
Lakan
 •  Iron Age – (pre-900)[citation needed] Amaron[citation needed]
 •  c. 900 Jayadewa (first according to LCI)
 •  1390?–1420?[citation needed] Rajah Gambang[citation needed]
 •  1558–1571 Lakandula
 •  1575–1589 Magat Salamat (last)
Historical era Iron Age
Classical Antiquity
High Middle Ages
 •  Diplomacy with the Medang Kingdom[3] c. before 900 (LCI-last historical reference)[3]
 •  Majapahit–Luzon war 1365
 •  Diplomacy with Ming Dynasty[11] 1373
 •  Annexed by Bruneian Empire 1500
 •  Last resistance against Spain[12] 1571
 •  Dissolution of the kingdom 1589[2]
Currency Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter[13]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ancient barangay
Prehistory of the Philippines
Kingdom of Maynila
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of  Philippines
Warning: Value specified for "continent" does not comply
Part of a series on the
History of Brunei
Emblem of Brunei.svg
Pre-Sultanate
Bruneian Empire
1368
to 1888
House of Bolkiah
(15th century – present)
Sultanate of Sulu
1405
to 1578
Kingdom of Maynila
1500s
to 1571
Kingdom of Tondo
1500s
to 1571
Castille War 1578
Civil War 1660–1673
Sarawak
15th century
to 1841
Labuan
15th century
to 1846
Sabah (North Borneo)
15th century
to 1865
British protectorate 1888–1984
Japanese occupation 1942–1945
Borneo campaign 1945
1945–1946
Revolt 1962

The Kingdom of Tondo (Filipino: Kaharian ng Tondo [kɐhɐrɪˈən nɐŋ tonˈdo]; Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit:ᜎᜓᜐᜓ(Lusu), Post-Kudlit: ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ; Kapampangan: Kayarian ning Tondo; Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū; Sanskrit: तोन्दुन् (Tondu); Malay: Kerajaan Tundun), also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, Tung-lio, or Lusung,[14][15] is one of the major pre-hispanic Philippine polities[4][16][17] (protohistoric barangays[18][19][4]) north of the Pasig River, on Luzon island.[20](p71)[21] It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines' earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (900 CE).

An independent kingdom whose culture and language were influenced by trade with India,[22] China,[23] and various Southeast Asian powers, Tondo built upon its central position along ancient regional trading routes[24][better source needed][circular reference] throughout the archipelago to include, among others, initiating diplomatic and commercial ties with China during the Ming Dynasty. Thus, it became an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia (see Luções).[editorializing] Tondo's regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah.[according to whom?] And by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago.[25][better source needed][circular reference]

Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of the Kingdom of Maynila). Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent political entity; it now exists only as a district of the modern City of Manila.

Historiography

Primary Sources

Laura Lee Junker, in her 1998 review of primary sources regarding archaic Philippine polities, lists the primary sources of information regarding the river delta polities of Maynila and Tondo as “Malay texts, Philippine oral traditions, Chinese tributary records and geographies, early Spanish writings, and archaeological evidence.”[16] Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs (the earliest of which was Robert Fox’s[26] work for the National Museum in 1977) and Spanish colonial records (most notably those compiled by the 19th century Franciscan Historian Fray Felix Huerta[27]).

Junker noted the inherent biases of each of the written sources, emphasizing the need to counter-check their narratives with one another, and with empirical archeological evidence.[16]

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription

Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900)

The first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines' oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI). This legal document was written in Kawi, and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).

The first part of the document says that:

On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the King of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa.

The document was a sort of receipt that acknowledged that the man named Namwaran had been cleared of his debt to the King of Tundun, which in today's measure would be about 926.4 grams of gold.[28]

The article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their Rulers: Pailah (Lord Minister Jayadewa), Puliran Kasumuran (Lord Minister), Binwangan (unnamed). It has been suggested that Pailah, Puliran Kasumuran, and Binwangan are the towns of Paila, Pulilan, and Binwangan in Bulacan, but it has also been suggested that Pailah refers to the town of Pila, Laguna. More recent linguistic research of the Old Malay grammar of the document suggests the term Puliran Kasumuran refers to the large lake now known as Laguna de Ba'y (Puliran),[citation needed] citing the root of Kasumuran, *sumur as Old Malay for well, spring or freshwater source. Hence ka-sumur-an defines a water-source (in this case the freshwater lake of Puliran itself).[citation needed] While the document does not describe the exact relationship of the King of Tundun with these other rulers, it at least suggests that he was of higher rank.[29][better source needed]

Ming Dynasty court records

The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Shilu Annals (明实录]),[10] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty (大明朝) in 1373.[10] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ().[30] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals[contentious label] of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands.[31] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song dynasties.[32][33]

Geographical location and territorial influence

Scholars generally agree[16][4] that Tondo was located north of the Pasig river,[1] on the northern part of Lusong or Lusung, which is an Old Tagalog name for the Pasig river delta.[5](p190-191) This name is thought to have been derived from the Tagalog word for a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[34][15] This name eventually came to be used as the name for the entire island of modern Luzon.[35]

The exact extent of territory controlled by Tondo is not clearly described in early records, since, as the Malacañang Presidential Museum put it in their 2015 Araw ng Maynila briefers,[4] "early polities in the Philippines put primacy on alliance networking rather than territorial conquest in expanding their political power."[4] However, its territorial boundaries excluded[5](p191)[27] territory occupied by Maynila[5][36] and Namayan.[26][27]

Reclamation by Chinese refugees in Baybay

One notable area controlled by Tondo under the reign of Bunao Lakandula in the 1500s[5] was called "Baybay", now known as the district of San Nicolas, Manila.[37] William Henry Scott, citing Augustinian missionary records,[38] notes that Bunao Lakandula had allowed a group of Chinese refugees, fleeing persecution from Japan, to settle there. These refugees, which included two Christians, then "diked, drained, and reclaimed land along the waterfront", extending the shore of Tondo further out to Manila Bay.[5]

Territory

Inside modern NCR

Outside modern NCR

Etymology

Plate depicting the "tundok" plant (Aegiceras corniculatum), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"

Numerous theories on the origin of the name "Tondo" have been put forward. Filipino National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that it might be a reference to high ground ("tundok").[47] French linguist Jean-Paul Potet, however, has suggested that the River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called "tundok" ("tinduk-tindukan" today), is the most likely origin of the name.[48]

Detail of an illustration from Jean Mallat's 1846 book "The Philippines: history, geography, customs, agriculture, industry, and commerce of the Spanish colonies in Oceania", showing "a Tagalog couple pounding rice." The mortar depicted is known as a "lusong", a large, cylindrical, deep-mouthed wooden mortal used to de-husk rice.[49](p44) Linguist Jean Paul Potet explains that the Old Tagalog name of the Pasig River delta,[48] in which Tondo was located, was derived from this mortar.
Bangkang Pinawa,[relevant? ] ancient Philippines Mortar and pestle.

The name Luzon, which Potet explains was the name given to the Pasig River delta area,[48] is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, which is a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[50][15] A 2008 PIDS research paper by Eulito Bautista and Evelyn Javier provides an image of a Lusong, and explains that "Traditional milling was accomplished in the 1900s by pounding the palay with a wooden pestle in a stone or wooden mortar  called  lusong.  The  first  pounding  takes  off  the hull and  further  pounding  removes  the  bran  but  also  breaks  most grains. Further winnowing with a bamboo tray (bilao) separates the hull from the  rice  grains.  This  traditional  hand-pounding  chore,  although very laborious and resulted in a lot of broken rice, required two to three skilled men  and  women  to  work  harmoniously  and  was  actually  a form  of socializing among young folks in the villages.[49]

Political structure

The indigenous term used by the residents of Tondo to describe their form of government was "barangay",[4][16][18][5] a term referring to the ships[5] they supposedly used when they first settled on the land.

This leads to some confusion for modern readers, because the term "barangay" was later adapted (through the 1991 Local Government Code) as a replacement for the Spanish term barrio to describe the smallest administrative division in the modern Republic of the Philippines[18] - a government structure very different from the original meaning of the word.[5]

Popular literature has thus described these political entities as either chiefdoms[4] or kingdoms.[51] Although modern scholars such as Renfew[17] and Junker[16] note that these are not appropriate technical descriptions.[16][17][4]

Contemporary historiographers specializing in early Philippine history prefer to use the generic term "polity" in international journals,[16][17][4] avoiding the terms "chiefdom" and "kingdom" altogether.

Scholars such as William Henry Scott and F. Landa Jocano have continued to use the term "barangay", especially in longer-form texts such as books[5] and anthologies,[52] because these longer forms allow space for explanations of the differences between the modern and archaic uses of the word "barangay".

Culture and Society

A portrayal of the Ginu class. From the Boxer Codex, c. 1595

It is believed[according to whom?] that the people of Tondo kingdom were related to Malay of Malay peninsula and Sumatra.[20](p71) Since at least the 3rd century[attribution needed], the people of Tondo had developed a culture which is predominantly Hindu and Buddhist society[attribution needed], they are ruled by a Lakan which is belong to a Caste[contentious label] of Maharlika were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon the Philippines translated in Spanish as Hidalgos, and meaning freeman, libres or freedman.[19] They belonged to the lower nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayan people. In modern Filipino, however, the term itself has erroneously come to mean "royal nobility", which was actually restricted to the hereditary Maginoo class.[53]

Kingdom of Tondo
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 東都
Japanese name
Kyūjitai 呂宋.

Social Structure

The different type of culture prevalent in Luzon gave a less stable and more complex social structure to the pre-colonial Tagalog barangays of Manila, Pampanga and Laguna. Enjoying a more extensive commerce than those in Visayas, having the influence of Bornean political contacts, and engaging in farming wet rice for a living, the Tagalogs were described by the Spanish Augustinian friar Martin de Rada as more traders than warriors.[54]

The more complex social structure of the Tagalogs was less stable during the arrival of the Spaniards because it was still in a process of differentiating. A Jesuit priest Francisco Colin made an attempt to give an approximate comparison of it with the Visayan social structure in the middle of the 17th century. The term datu or lakan, or apo refers to the chief, but the noble class to which the datu belonged to was known as the maginoo class. Any male member of the maginoo class can become a datu by personal achievement.[55]

The term timawa referring to freemen came into use in the social structure of the Tagalogs within just twenty years after the coming of the Spaniards. The term, however, was being incorrectly applied to former alipin (commoner and slave class) who have escaped bondage by payment, favor, or flight. Moreover, the Tagalog timawa did not have the military prominence of the Visayan timawa. The equivalent warrior class in the Tagalog society was present only in Laguna, and they were known as the maharlika class.

At the bottom of the social hierarchy are the members of the alipin class. There are two main subclasses of the alipin class. The aliping namamahay who owned their own houses and served their masters by paying tribute or working on their fields were the commoners and serfs, while the aliping sa gigilid who lived in their masters' houses were the servants and slaves.

Economic activities

The Piloncitos, a type of Gold nuggets with Baybayin Ma characters. Used as one of the early currency along with Gold rings.
The route of the Silk Road.

The people of Tondo were good[peacock term] agriculturists,[according to whom?] they lived through farming, rice planting and aquaculture (especially in lowland areas).[according to whom?] A report[citation needed] during the time of Miguel López de Legazpi noted of the great abundance of rice, fowls, wine as well as great numbers of carabaos, deer, wild boar and goat husbandry in Luzon. In addition, there were also great quantities of cotton and colored clothes, wax, wine, honey and date palms produced by the native peoples, rice, cotton, swine, fowls, wax and honey abound.

The Chinese migrations to Malaysia and the Philippines shore began in the 7th century and reached their peak after 1644 owing to the Manchu conquest of China. These Chinese immigrants settled in Manila, Pasig included, and in the other ports, which were annually visited by their trade junks, they have cargoes of silk, tea, ceramics, and their precious jade stones.[56]

The use of rice paddies in Pila[relevant? ] can be traced to prehistoric times, as evidenced in the names of towns such as Pila, Laguna, whose name can be traced to the straight mounds of dirt that form the boundaries of the rice paddy, or "Pilapil".[57]

Duck culture was also practiced by the natives, particularly those around Pateros and where Taguig City stands today.[relevant? ] This resembled the Chinese methods of artificial incubation of eggs and the knowledge of every phase of a duck's life. This tradition is carried on until modern times of making balut.[58]

Gold as a currency

Trade among the early Filipinos and with traders from the neighboring islands was conducted through Barter. The inconvenience of barter later led to the use of some objects as medium of exchange. Gold, which was plentiful in many parts of the islands, invariably found its way into these objects that included the Piloncitos, small bead-like gold nuggets/bits considered by the local numismatists as the earliest coin of ancient Filipinos, and gold barter rings.[59]

The Piloncitos a type of gold ingots are small, some are of the size of a corn kernel—and weigh from 0.09 to 2.65 grams of fine gold. Large Piloncitos weighing 2.65 grams approximate the weight of one mass. Piloncitos have been excavated from Mandaluyong, Bataan, the banks of the Pasig River, and Batangas.[13] That gold was mined and worked here is evidenced by many Spanish accounts, like one in 1586 that said:

“The people of this island (Luzon) are very skillful in their handling of gold. They weigh it with the greatest skill and delicacy that have ever been seen. The first thing they teach their children is the knowledge of gold and the weights with which they weigh it, for there is no other money among them.”[13]

Other than Piloncitos, the people of Tundun also used the Barter rings, which is gold ring-like ingots. These barter rings are bigger than doughnuts in size and are made of nearly pure gold.[60] Also, they are very similar to the first coins invented in the Kingdom of Lydia in present-day Turkey. Barter rings were circulated in the Philippines up to 16th century.[61]

Trade to Silk Road

Many of the barangay municipalities were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Po-ni, Malacca, Indian Chola, Champa, Burma and Khmer empires.[62]

Trading links with Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Indochina, China, Japan, India and Arabia. A thalassocracy had thus emerged based on international trade.[62]

Religion

Expansion of Hinduism in the Philippines.

The main religion was widely Hinduism, followed by Buddhism[63] in popularity along with Folk religion, Initially the kingdom revered Buddhist-Hindu influence as the predominant religion.[8][64] [65]

Buddhism[66][67],[68] is widely practice throughout Tondo[citation needed], the Vajrayana,[69][unreliable source?]Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism,[70][unreliable source?] made inroads into Philippines when the Srivijaya empire in present-day - Indonesia and Malaysia gained prominence. This was the period between 7th century to 13th century. Later, on the arrival of the Chinese and Indian merchants between the 10th century brought in the Buddhist knowledge as well as Buddhist iconography. Buddhist statues and artefacts from this era is a proof to the influence that Buddhism had amongst the people in Philippines.[69][unreliable source?]

Folk religion was practiced a collection of beliefs and cultural mores anchored more or less in the idea that the world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both good and bad, and that respect must be accorded to them through worship. These nature spirits are known as "diwatas", related[71] to Hindu Devatas.

An Artifacts found In 1989 the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by scholars. It is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines, dated to be from the 9th century AD, and was deciphered in 1992 by Dutch anthropologist Antoon Postma.The copperplate inscription suggests economic and cultural links between the Tagalog people of Philippines with the Javanese Medang Kingdom, the Srivijaya empire, and the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of India. Hinduism in the country declined when Islam was introduced by traders from Arabia which was then followed by Christianity from Spain. This is an active area of research as little is known about the scale and depth of Philippine history from the 1st millennium and before.[72] The document states that it releases its bearers, the children of Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suwarnas (865 grams).[45][73][dubious ]

Timeline of historical events

Lusung and the Luzones

Portuguese accounts

Pires noted that they (The Lucoes or people from Luzon) were "mostly heathen" and were not much esteemed in Malacca at the time he was there, although he also noted that they were strong, industrious, given to useful pursuits. Pires' exploration led him to discover that in their own country, the Luções had "foodstuffs, wax, honey, inferior grade gold," had no king, and were governed instead by a group of elders. They traded with tribes from Borneo and Indonesia and Filipino historians note that the language of the Luções was one of the 80 different languages spoken in Malacca.[74] When Magellan's ship arrived in the Philippines and East Timor, Pigafetta noted that there were Luções there collecting sandalwood.[62]

The Luções' activities weren't limited to trade however. They also had a reputation for being fierce warriors.

Pinto noted that there were a number of them in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511.[75] Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.[62]

Resistance against Muslims

However, the Luções did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines who fought the Muslims in 1538.[75]

Mission in Malacca

When the Portuguese arrived in Southeast Asia in 1500, they witnessed the Lusung's active involvement in the political and economic affairs of those who sought to take control of the economically strategic highway of the Strait of Malacca. For instance, the former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525.[76]

Burmese–Siamese wars involvement

On Mainland Southeast Asia, Lusung/Luções warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayutthaya.[77]

Native-Warrior.jpg Caption when mouse-over image
A Warrior equipped with Sibat and Kalasag A Warrior equipped with Arquebuse.

Lusung Assistance in the Portuguese Discovery of Japan

The Luções were also instrumental in guiding Portuguese ships to discover Japan. The Western world first heard of Japan through the Portuguese. But it was through the Luções (as the Portuguese called the people of Lusung) that the Portuguese had their first encounter with the Japanese. The Portuguese king commissioned his subjects to get good pilots that could guide them beyond the seas of China and Malacca. In 1540, the Portuguese king's factor in Brunei, Brás Baião, recommended to his king the employment of Lusung pilots because of their reputation as "discoverers".[78] Thus it was through Lusung navigators that Portuguese ships found their way to Japan in 1543. In 1547, Jesuit missionary and Catholic saint Francis Xavier encountered his first Japanese convert from Satsuma disembarking from a Lusung ship in Malacca.

The Bruneian Empire and the establishment of Selurong (1500)

By the 15th century, the Bruneian Empire controlled western shores of the Philippines

According to other Bruneian oral traditions, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah played a role in the creation of the Tondo's neighbor, Selurong, which would later become the City of Manila. French linguist Jean-Paul Potet[48](p122) notes that "According to some, Luzon and/Manila would have been called Seludong or Selurong by the Malays of Brunei before the Spanish conquest (Cebu 1565, Manila 1571)."[48](p122) However, Potet also points out that "there is no text to support this claim.  Conversely, Borneo has a mountain site called Seludong."[48](p122)

Scott acknowledges those traditions, noting that "according to Bruneian folk history",[5](p191) [ ] "Manila was probably founded as a Bornean trading colony about 1500, with a royal prince marrying into the local ruling family."[5](p191)

According to other Bruneian oral traditions, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attacked the kingdom of Tondo, and established Selurong[79] on the opposite bank of Pasig River. The traditional Rajahs of Tondo, like Lakandula, retained their titles and property but the real political power came to reside in the House of Soliman, the Rajahs of Maynila.[80]

Islamization by forced conversion of the citizens of Tondo and Manila divided the area into Muslim domains. The Bruneians installed the Muslim rajahs, Rajah Salalila and Rajah Matanda in the south (now Intramuros district) and the settlement under Lakandula in northern Tundun (now Tondo).[81] With the rise of Islam, other religions in the archipelago gradually disappeared.

Incorporation into the Bruneian Empire (1500)

Tondo became so prosperous that around the year 1500, the Bruneian Empire, under Sultan Bolkiah, merged it by a royal marriage of Gat Lontok, who later became Rajah of Namayan, and Dayang Kalangitan[citation needed] to establish a city with the Malay name of Selurong (later to become the city of Manila)[5][82] on the opposite bank of Pasig River.

The traditional rulers of Tondo, like Lakandula, retained their titles and property upon embracing Islam but the real political power transferred to the master trader House of Sulayman, the Rajahs of Maynila.[83]

Spanish contact and decline (1570–1571)

Spanish colonizers from Mexico first came to the Manila Bay area and its settlements in June 1570, while Miguel López de Legazpi was searching for a suitable place to establish a capital for the new territory. Having heard from the natives of a prosperous Moro settlement on the island of Luzon, López de Legazpi had sent Martín de Goiti to investigate. When Maynila's ruler, Rajah Matanda, refused to submit to Spanish sovereignty, de Goiti attacked. He eventually defeated Rajah Matanda, claimed Maynila in the name of the King of Spain, then returned to report his success to López de Legazpi, who was then based on the island of Panay.

López de Legazpi himself returned to take the settlement on 19 June 1571. When the Spanish forces approached, the natives burned Maynila down and fled to Tondo and other neighboring towns.

López de Legazpi began constructing a fort on the ashes of Maynila and made overtures of friendship to Lakandula of Tondo, who accepted. The defeated Matanda refused to submit to the Spaniards, but failed to get the support of Lakandula or of the Kapampangan and Pangasinan settlements to the north. When Rajah Sulayman and a force of Muslim warriors attacked the Spaniards in the Battle of Bankusay Channel, he was finally defeated and killed.

This defeat marked the end of rebellion against the Spanish among the Pasig river settlements, and Lakandula's Tondo surrendered its sovereignty, submitting to the authority of the new Spanish capital, Manila.[84]

Battle of Bankusay Channel

June 3, 1571 marked the last resistance by locals to the occupation and colonization by the Spanish Empire of Manila in the Battle of Bankusay Channel. Tarik Sulayman, the chief of Macabebes, refused to ally with the Spanish and decided to mount an attack at the Bankusay Channel on Spanish forces, led by Miguel López de Legazpi. Sulayman's forces were defeated, and he was killed. The Spanish victory in Bankusay and Legaspi's alliance with Lakandula of the Kingdom of Tondo, enabled the Spaniards to establish themselves throughout the city and its neighboring towns.[85]

Tondo Conspiracy

The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, also referred to as the Revolt of the Lakans from 1587–1588 was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the Tagalog and Kapampangan noblemen, or Datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga, in the Philippines. They were the indigenous rulers of their area or an area yet upon submission to the might of the Spanish was relegated as mere collector of tributes or at best Encomenderos that need to report to a Spanish Governor. It was led by Agustín de Legazpi, the son of a Maginoo of Tondo (one of the chieftains of Tondo), born of a Spanish mother given a Hispanized name to appease the colonizers, grandson of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to rise up in arms. The uprising failed when they were betrayed to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes.[39] The mastermind of the plot was Don Agustín de Legazpi; the mestizo grandson of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula, a relative of Rajah Matanda. Being a Moro, he was the son-in-law of Sultan Bolkieh of Brunei, whose first cousin was Martín Panga, the gobernadorcillo of Tondo.

Besides the two, the other leaders were Magat Salamat, son of Lakan Dula and the crown prince of Tondo; Juan Banal, another prince of Tondo and Salamat’s brother-in-law; Geronimo Basi and Gabriel Tuambacar, brothers of Agustín de Legazpi; Pedro Balingit, the Lord of Pandakan; Felipe Salonga, the Lord of Polo; Dionisio Capolo (Kapulong), the Lord of Kandaba and brother of Felipe Salonga; Juan Basi, the Lord of Tagig; Esteban Taes (also Tasi), the Lord of Bulakan; Felipe Salalila, the Lord of Misil; Agustín Manuguit, son of Felipe Salalila; Luis Amanicaloa, another prince of Tondo; Felipe Amarlangagui, the commander-and-chief of Katanghalan; Omaghicon, the Minister of Nabotas, and Pitongatan (Pitong Gatang), another prince of Tondo and two governors from Malolos and Guiguinto.[39]

Diplomatic relations with contemporaneous polities

Relations with the Medang Kingdom (900)

Pre-hispanic History of the Philippines
Boxer codex.jpg
Barangay government
Ten datus of Borneo
States in Luzon
Caboloan (Pangasinan)
Ma-i
Kingdom of Maynila
Namayan
Kingdom of Tondo
States in the Visayas
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Kedatuan of Dapitan
Rajahnate of Cebu
States in Mindanao
Rajahnate of Butuan
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanate of Lanao
Key figures
Sulaiman II · Lakan Dula · Sulaiman III · Katuna
Tarik Sulayman · Tupas · Kabungsuwan · Kudarat
Humabon · Lapu-Lapu · Alimuddin I · Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram
History of the Philippines
Portal: Philippines

The Dutch anthropologist and Hanunó'o script expert Antoon Postma has concluded that the Laguna Copperplate Inscription also mentions the places of Tondo (Tundun); Paila (Pailah), now an enclave of Barangay San Lorenzo, Norzagaray; Binuangan (Binwangan), now part of Obando; and Pulilan (Puliran); and Mdaŋ (the Javanese Kingdom of Medang), in present-day Indonesia.[86] Apparently, the Philippine Kingdom of Tondo and the Medang Kingdom of Indonesia were known allies and trading partners.

Relations with Siamese kingdoms (Thailand)

The Lucoes and Siam began its relation way-back in the 13th century in the context of Southeast Asian maritime trade. Archaeological records point not only to commercial and cultural ties but also a recognition of their political stature. Siam with its kingdoms and the Philippines with its rajahs. There were also ceramic wares from Sukhothai and Sawankhalok found in Luzon and Visayas region as evidence of early relations. Southeast Asian wares found in the Philippines from the 13th century to 16th century period were mostly from Siam.[87][88]

Diplomacy with the Ming dynasty (1373)

The next historical reference to Tondo can be found in the Chinese Ming Shilu Annals,[10] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty in 1373.[10] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ().[30] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands.[31] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song dynasties.[32]

The rise of the Ming dynasty saw the arrival of the first Chinese settlers in the archipelago. They were well received and lived together in harmony with the existing local population — eventually intermarrying with them so that today, numerous Filipinos have Chinese blood in their veins.[32]

This connection was important enough that when the Ming Dynasty emperors enforced the Hai jin laws which closed China to maritime trade from 1371 to about 1567, trade with the Kingdom of Tondo was officially allowed to continue, masqueraded as a tribute system, through the seaport at Fuzhou.[89] Aside from this, a more extensive clandestine trade from Guangzhou and Quanzhou also brought in Chinese goods to Luzon.[90]

Luzon and Tondo thus became a center from which Chinese goods were traded all across Southeast Asia. Chinese trade was so strict that Luzon traders carrying these goods were considered "Chinese" by the people they encountered.[90]

This powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th-century East Asia was also felt strongly by Japan. The Ming Empire treated Luzon traders more favorably than Japan by allowing them to trade with China once every two years.

Diplomacy with Japan

A Japanese Red seal ship. Tokyo Naval Science Museum.
Statue of Luzon Sukezaemon at Sakai Citizens' Hall.

Japan was only allowed to trade once every 10 years. Japanese merchants often used piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th-century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu (島井宗室) and Kamiya Soutan (神屋宗湛) established branch offices on the island of Luzon. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon (呂宋助左衛門), went as far as to change his surname from Naya (納屋) to Luzon (呂宋).[91]

Relations between Japan and the kingdoms in the Philippines, date back to at least the Muromachi period of Japanese history, as Japanese merchants and traders had settled in Luzon at this time. Especially in the area of Dilao, a suburb of Manila, was a Nihonmachi of 3,000 Japanese around the year 1600. The term probably originated from the Tagalog term 'dilaw'[citation needed], meaning 'yellow', which describes a colour. The Japanese had established quite early an enclave at Dilao where they numbered between 300 and 400 in 1593. In 1603, during the Sangley rebellion, they numbered 1,500, and 3,000 in 1606. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese people traders also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population.[92] pp. 52–3

Historical theories associated with Ancient Tondo

Lakan as a title

While most historians think of Lakan Dula as a specific person, with Lakan meaning Lord, King or Paramount Ruler and Dula being a proper name, one theory suggests that Lakandula is a hereditary title for the Monarchs of the Kingdom of Tondo.[93]

The heirs of Lakan Banao Dula

In 1587, Magat Salamat, one of the children of Lakan Dula, and with his Spanish name Augustin de Legazpi, Lakan Dula's nephew, and the lords of the neighboring areas of Tondo, Pandakan, Marikina, Kandaba, Nabotas and Bulakan were martryed for secretly conspiring to overthrow the Spanish colonizers. Stories were told that Magat Salamat's descendants settled in Hagonoy, Bulacan and many of his descendants spread from this area.[94]

David Dula y Goiti, a grandson of Lakan Dula with a Spanish mother escaped the persecution of the descendants of Lakan Dula by settling in Isla de Batag, Northern Samar and settled in the place now called Candawid (Kan David). Due to hatred for the Spaniards, he dropped the Goiti in his surname and adopted a new name David Dulay. He was eventually caught by the Guardia Civil based in Palapag and was executed together with seven followers. They were charged with planning to attack the Spanish detachment.[94]

Notable monarchs of Tondo

Legendary Rulers

Title Name Title held/Notes From Until
Ama-ron
or Amaron
Amaron is like most of the male Filipino mythological heroes, he is described as an attractive well-built man who exemplifies great strength. Ama-ron is unique among other Filipino legends[citation needed] due to the lack of having a story on how he was born which was common with Filipino epic heroes. Uncertain, possibly during Iron Age.[95][verification needed]
Gat Pangil Gat Pangil was a chieftain in the area now known as Laguna province, He is mentioned in the origin legends of Bay, Laguna, Pangil, Laguna, Pakil, Laguna and Mauban, Quezon, all of which are thought to have once been under his domain. Uncertain, possibly during Iron Age.[44][verification needed]
Dayang or Sultana Kalangitan[1] Legendary "Lady of the Pasig"[1] who ruled Namayan and later became the grandmother of the Kapampangan ruler known as "Prinsipe Balagtas"[1] Legendary antiquity (Kapampangan folk tradition (cited by Odal-Devora, 2000[1]) c. 1450 1515
"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora[1])
Sasaban In oral Tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, a "lady of Namayan" who went to the Madjapahit court to marry Emperor Soledan, eventually giving birth to Balagtas, who then returned to Namayan/Pasig in 1300.[1](p51) prior to 1300
(according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio)[1]
"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora[1])
Panginoan In Batangueño Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[1] the daughter of Kalangitan and Lontok who were rulers of Pasig, who eventually maried Balagtas, King of Balayan and Taal.(p51)

In Kapampangan[1] Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[1] who eventually married Bagtas, the "grandson of Kalangitan."(pp47,51)

In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, "Princess Panginoan of Pasig" who was married by Balagtas, the son of Emperor Soledan of Madjapahit in 1300 in an effort consolidate rule of Namayan.[1](pp47,51)
c. 1300 according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[1]

Historical Rulers of Tondo

Name Title held/Notes From Until
Hwan Nāyaka Jayadeva
Jayadewa
Senapati[28] (Admiral), known only in the LCI as the king who gave the pardon to Lord Namwaran and his wife Dayang Angkatan and their daughter named Bukah for their excessive debts in 900 AD. c. 900 ?
Gambang[96][verification needed] Lakan Gambang, another ruler who used the title Senapati[citation needed] or Admiral. 1390? 1417?
Suko[97][verification needed] Lakan Suko (or also known as Sukwu (朔霧) means "northern mist", according to the Dongxi Yanggao (東西洋考) Abdicated.)[citation needed] 1417? 1430?
Lontok Rajah Lontok was the husband and co-regent of Dayang Kalangitan. During his reign, Tondo had many achievements and became more powerful; his reign also saw the enlargement of the state's territory.[98] 1430 1450
Bolkiah[99][5] Sultan Bolkiah, according to Brunei folk history, is the "Nakhoda Ragam" or the "Singing Captain", the reputed conqueror of the Philippines.[5] The tradition even names the cannon with which he was said to have taken Manila - "Si Gantar Alam", translated as the "Earth-shaking Thunderer".[5] He established an outpost in the center of the area of Manila after the rulers of Tondo lost in the Battle of Manila (1500). Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei is the grandfather of Ache, the old rajah, also known as Ladyang Matanda or Rajah Matanda.[5] c. 1500 1515
Salalila[citation needed] Rajah Salalila or Rajah Sulayman I, the Rajah of Maynila and Pampanga
(A puppet Rajah installed by Sultan Bolkiah.)
1515 1558
Matanda Rajah Matanda or Rajah Sulayman II or Rajah Ache, King of Namayan 1558 1571
Lakan Dula Bunao Lakandula, Lakan of Tondo and Sabag, he is the last ruler which possess the title of "Lakan". 1558 1571
Sulayman Rajah Sulayman, Rajah of Tondo and Maynila 1571 1575
Magat Salamat The last ruler of Tondo dynasty after the monarchy was dissolved by the Spanish authorities due to the fact that he led the Tondo conspiracy. 1575 1589

Notable Princes and Ministers of Tondo

Name Title held/Notes From Until
Kasumuran[45]
(uncertain)
Known in Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a Lord Minister or an ancient name of Bay, Laguna c. 900 AD ?
Gat Bishruta[45] Known in Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Lord Minister of Binwagan, or Binagonan, Rizal, which is represented the pardon of Namwaran by the chief of Medang. c. 900 AD ?
Ganashakti[45] Known in Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Lord Minister of Pila, Laguna who cleared the family of Namwaran from the salary-related debts of 1 Katî and 8 Suwarna. c. 900 AD ?
Luis Amanicaloa[39][verification needed] Prince of Tondo - 1588
Felipe Amarlangagui[39][verification needed] The Commander and chief in Katanghalan - 1588
Lord Balingit[39][verification needed] the Lord of Pandakan - 1588
Pitongatan
(Also known as Pitong-gatang) [39][verification needed]
Prince - Minister of Tondo, Manila - 1588
Lord Kapulong[39] Lord of Candaba, Pampanga - 1588
Juan Basi[39][verification needed] Lord of Tagig - 1588
Esteban Taes
(also known as Ginoong Tasi)[39][verification needed]
the Lord of Bulakan - 1588

See also

Additional reading

Bolkiah Era

Spanish Era

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