The Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests is a mostly arid ecoregion in northwestern India that stretches over 103,100 sq mi (267,000 km2) across Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The dry deciduous forests in the region are dominated by teak, and thorny trees and scrub in drier areas.
The Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests include the Aravalli Range, the high point of which is Mount Abu with an elevation of 1,721 m (5,646 feet), and a small part of the Northwestern thorn scrub forest in the west. Protected areas cover 8,980 km2 (3,470 sq mi) in this ecoregion, and include:
In the west is the Kathiawar Peninsula and the strip of western Rajasthan between the Aravalli Range and Thar Desert. To the northwest, the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests transit to the Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests. To the southeast lies the Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests, of the Vindhya Range, and the Narmada River Valley. The ecoregion also borders the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests in southeastern Gujarat.
The ecoregion has a tropical monsoon climate, with most of its 550 to 700 mm average annual rainfall during the June–September southwest monsoon and little for the remaining months of the year, while temperatures often exceed 40 °C. Higher elevations of the Aravallis stay cooler, and the windward slopes (generally southeast-facing) receive higher rainfall. This results in a dry landscape of thorny scrub, bare trees and rocks.
The composition of the ecoregion's forests varies with moisture and soils. They have a three-storied structure, with the top story reaching 15 to 25 m (49 to 82 ft). Arid areas are dominated by Anogeissus pendula growing in association with khair, especially on the quartzite ridges and gneiss hillocks of the Aravalli Range. Less arid areas are dominated by teak (Tectona grandis), bael (Aegle marmelos), Boswellia serrata, Desmodium oojeinense, Diospyros species, silk-cotton tree, Sterculia urens, Phyllanthus emblica, Dalbergia paniculata, and Terminalia elliptica. Mount Abu is covered in dry deciduous forest with conifers at the highest elevations. Thorn scrub forests, characterized by Euphorbia caducifolia, Maytenus emarginata, Acacia senegal, Commiphora mukul, Wrightia tinctoria, Flueggea leucopyrus, Grewia species, occur on rocky Aravalli hillsides and in degraded areas. The endemic species Dicliptera abuensis, Strobilanthes halbergii, and Veronica anagallis also grow in these areas. Date palms (Phoenix sylvestris) and fig trees (Ficus racemosa) grow near rivers and streams of the hills.
Bengal tiger in Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan
Golden jackal in the area of Rajkot
Mugger crocodile at Gir
Great Indian bustard at the Naliya grasslands, Kutch
White-naped tit foraging on Prosopis juliflora at Kutch
The human population in the region is growing, and wildlife habitats have mostly been removed or degraded due to collection of firewood and timber, and use as grazing land for livestock.