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Kalapuyan (also Kalapuya) is a small extinct language family that was spoken in the Willamette Valley of Western Oregon, United States. It consists of three languages.
Kalapuyan consists of
Northern Kalapuya † (also known as Tualatin– Yamhill) 2.
Central Kalapuya † (several dialects, including Santiam) 3. Yoncalla † (also known as Southern Kalapuya)
Kalapuyan is usually connected with the various
Penutian proposals, originally as part of an Oregon Penutian branch along with Takelma, Siuslaw, Alsea and Coosan. A special relationship with Takelma had been proposed, together forming a "Takelma-Kalapuyan" or "Takelman" family.     However, an unpublished paper by Tarpent & Kendall (1998)  finds this relationship to be unfounded because of the extremely different morphological structures of Takelma and Kalapuyan.
Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kalapuyan". . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Glottolog 3.0
^ Berman, H. (1990).
An Outline of Kalapuya Historical Phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 56(1), 27-59.
^ Sapir, E. (1921).
A Characteristic Penutian Form of Stem. International Journal of American Linguistics, 2(1/2), 58-67.
^ Frachtenberg, L. (1918).
Comparative Studies in Takelman, Kalapuyan and Chinookan Lexicography, a Preliminary Paper. International Journal of American Linguistics, 1(2), 175-182.
^ Swadesh, M. (1965).
Kalapuya and Takelma. International Journal of American Linguistics, 31(3), 237-240.
^ Shipley, W. (1969).
Proto-Takelman. International Journal of American Linguistics, 35(3), 226-230.
^ Kendall, D. (1997).
The Takelma Verb: Toward Proto-Takelma-Kalapuyan. International Journal of American Linguistics, 63(1), 1-17.
^ cited in: Mithun, Marianne. (1999).
The languages of Native North America, pp. 432-433. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Campbell, Lyle. (1997).
American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1. Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996).
Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
Jacobs, Melville (1945). Kalapuya Texts. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology. Volume 11. Seattle: University of Washington. Mithun, Marianne. (1999).
The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X. Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978–present). (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published). Handbook of North American Indians