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Kabalian language

Kabalian
Cabalianon, Kinabalianon
Kinabalian
Native toPhilippines
RegionSan Juan, Southern Leyte
Native speakers
14,000 (2009)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3cbw
Glottologkina1252[2]

The Kabalian (Cabalian) language, Kinabalian, is spoken in the municipality of San Juan in the province of Southern Leyte in the Philippines. It is closely related to Waray-Waray.

Native speakers refer to the language as Cabalianon or Kinabalianon. This language shares certain characteristics with Cebuano, Boholano, and Surigaonon mainly because of the seafaring livelihood of pre-Hispanic inhabitants of Cabalian, documented by Spanish explorers. Waray did not make inroads into the southern portion of Leyte because of the mountains separating the north and south portions of the island. This is coherent under the principle of mountains divide; seas unite in the spread of Philippine languages.

The heaviest influence on Cabalianon is Surigaonon, owing to the contact between Cabalian and Surigao in the early Spanish period. Cabalianons, as well as the natives of Sogod, regularly travelled to Surigao and Butuan to obtain gold, a fact recorded by the Augustinian Fray Agustín María de Castro in the Osario venerable.

Kabalian is spoken in 6 villages in San Juan (Cabalian) town, Southern Leyte Province. These barangays are located in the eastern portion of the town. The predominance of Cabalianon in this side of the town is due to the fact that migrants from Cebu and Bohol settled in the western portion of the town, particularly Pong-oy, as well as in Himatagon, the business hub of Saint Bernard, formerly a part of Cabalian, resulting in the gradual disappearance of the language in these parts.

Although Kabalian is a Warayan language, it has mixed elements of Boholano, Cebuano and Surigaonon, a similar pattern which is also found in Baybayanon. However, Kabalian is not mutually intelligible with either Waray-Waray, Boholano, Cebuano or Surigaonon. Kabalian speakers do not ethnically or linguistically identify themselves with speakers of either of these languages.

Vocabulary

English Tagalog Cebuano Southern Leyteño Kabalian
dog aso irô irô idò
cat pusà iríng iríng idíng
house bahay baláy ba:ay bayáy
fire apóy kaláyo kajo kayajo
man lalaki laláki laki layaki
woman babae babáye baji babaji
say sabi ingón ingon laong
this ito kirí/kiní kiri/kari ini
that iyan kanâ/kadtó kara iton/jaon
hungry gutom gútom gutom gusla

Interrogatives

  • Sin-o? Who?
  • Kanin-o? To whom?
  • Uno? What?
  • Giuno? How? (past)
  • Unhon/Unohon? How? (future)
  • Haman? Where? (for person or object)
  • Ngain? Where? (for place)
  • Diin? Where? (for directions or origin)
  • Kanus-a? When?
  • Ngaman? Why?
  • Amo baja? Really?
  • Tagpila? How much?

Haman, Ngain, and Diin mean where. They have distinct uses in Kabalianon. Haman is used when asking about a person or object.

  • Haman si Papa? (Where is Papa?)
  • Haman gibutang an gunting? (Where was the scissor put?)

Ngain is used when asking about a place.

  • Ngain man (ki)ta mularga? (Where are we going to?)
  • Ngain man kaw pasingud? (Where are you going?)

Diin is used when asking about directions or origin.

  • Diin man ini dapita? (Where is this place?)
  • Taga Diin man kaw? (Where are you from?)
  • Diin man kaw gikan? (Where were you?)

Phrases

  • Kumusta! (Hello)
  • Maajong buntag (Good Morning)
  • Maajong udto (Good Noon)
  • Maajong hapon (Good Afternoon)
  • Maajong gabii (Good Evening or Good Night)
  • Maajong adlaw (Good Day)
  • Ajoajo (Goodbye)
  • Panamping-amping (Take Care)
  • Salamat (Thank You)
  • Ajaw (Don't)
  • Waya (Nothing)
  • Dili (No)
  • Oo (Yes)
  • Baga(n), (Maybe)
  • Bayu (I don't know)

Comparison between Cabalianon, Surigaonon, Cebuano, and Waray

English Cebuano Waray Surigaonon Cabalianon
What is your name? Unsa ang imong ngalan? Ano tim ngaran? Omay imo ngayan? Uno may (= Umay) imo ngayan?
My name is Juan. Ang ngalan nako (kay) Juan. An ak ngaran Juan. An ako ngayan Juan. An ako ngayan Juan.
How are you? Kumusta ka? Kumusta ka? Kumusta kaw? Kumusta kaw?
I am fine, too. Maayo da/ra usab. Maupay la gihap. Marajaw da/ra i-/sab ako. Maajo da/ra i-/sab/-sad.
Where is Pedro? Hain/asa man (= Haman) si Pedro? Hain hi Pedro? Haman si Pedro? Hai/-n man (= Haman) si Pedro?
He is at home. Tua siya sa balay. Adto hiya ha balay. Jadto sija sa bayay. Adto sija sa bayay.
Thank you Salamat Salamat Salamat Salamat
I am staying at _____. / I live at ______. Nagpuyo ko sa _____. Naukoy ak ha ______. Naghuya aku sa _____. Nagpujo/Naghunong ko sa ______.
I am here at the house. Dia ko sa balay. Adi ak ha balay. Jari ako sa bayay. Ari a-/ko sa bayay.
I am hungry. Gigutom ko. Nagugutom ak/-o. Taggutom ako Gigutom a-/ko. More commonly: Gigusla ko.
He is there, at school. Tua siya sa iskwelahan. Adto hiya ha iskwelahan. Jadto sija sa iskuylahan. Adto sija sa iskuylahan.
Now Karon Yana Kuman Kuman
Later Unya Niyan Ngaj-an Ngaj-an
What day is today? Unsa nga adlaw karon? Ano nga adlaw yana? Oman na adlaw kuman? Uno man (= Uman) adlawa kuman?
What day will you leave? Unsa nga adlaw ka molarga? Ano nga adlaw ka malarga? Unu na adlaw kaw mularga? Or: Kun-o kaw mularga? Uno man (= Uman) adlawa kaw molarga?
My walk last Saturday. Ang lakaw nako kaniadtong sabado. An akon lakat hadton sabado. An ako panaw adton sabado. An ako panaw sadton sabado.
When did they eat? Kanus-a sila mikaon? Kakan-o hira kumaon? Kagan-o sila nangaon Kanus-a sila nangaon?
When did you arrive? Kanus-a ka miabot? Kakan-o ka umabot? Kagan-o man kaw nin-abot? Kanus-a man kaw noabot
When are you going to school? Kanus-a ka moadto sa iskwelahan? San-o ka makadto ha iskwelahan? Kun-o man kaw mukadto sa iskuylahan? Kanus-a man kaw mokadto sa iskuylahan?
Where are you going? Asa ka paingon/padulong? Makain ka? Haman kaw pasingud? Or: Haman kaw mukadto? Hai/n man (= Haman) kaw pasingod? Or: Ngain kaw singod?
Who is that person? Kinsa na nga tawo? Hin-o iton hiya? Siman jaon? Or: Siman jaon sija? Sin-o man (= Siman) ton tawhana? Or: Sin-o man (= Siman) jaon?
Who own this shirt? Kang kinsa (= Kansa) kini nga sinina? Kanin-o ini nga bado? Kanin-o ini baro? Kanin-o man (= Kaman) ini sininaa?
Where is mother? Asa/Hain si nanay? Hain hi nanay? Haman si nanay? Hai/-n man (= Haman) si nanay?
When were you born? Kanus-a ka gipanganak/natawo? Kakan-o ka gin-anak/natawo? Kagan-o man kaw tag-anak/natawo? Kanus-a man kaw gipanganak/natawo?
Why are you crying? Ngano nga nagahilak ka? Kay ano nga nagtatangis/nagtutu-ok ka? Oman nagtuwaw man kaw? Ngano man (= Ngaman) nagtuwaw man kaw?
How do you sleep? Unsaon man nimo pagkatulog? Aanhon man nimo pagkaturog? Unhon man nimo pagkatuyog? Unhon man nimo pagkatuyog?

References

  1. ^ Kabalian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kinabalian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.