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KONARE

Komiteti Nacional Revolucionar
AbbreviationKONARE
FormationMarch 25, 1925 (1925-03-25)[1]
FounderFan Noli
Founded atVienna
Extinctionmid '30s
TypePolitical
PurposeOverthrowing the political regime in Albania
Key people
Fan Noli
Kostandin Boshnjaku
Main organ
Liria Kombëtare (National Freedom)

KONARE or Komiteti Nacional Revolucionar (Revolutionary National Committee) was a left-wing revolutionary committee of the Albanian political émigrés in Europe, from 1925 till mid-30s. Its central political figure was Bishop Fan Noli.

After the June Revolution, Ahmet Zogu and his supporters managed to overthrow Noli's government, making also use of the financials and military support from Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Greece. Most of the former democratic opposition fled to Italy, settling later in the western Europe, mainly in Vienna. Two organizations were formed there; KONARE and "Bashkimi Kombëtar" (National Union). The second consisted of patriotic-democratic anti-Zogist figures, while KONARE comprised also strong left-wing ideology. Beside being the main anti-Zogist opposition during 1925–30,[2] it showed was anti-feudal, anti-imperialist, and pro-Soviet nuances.[1] KONARE managed to retrieve financial support by the COMINTERN with the intermediation of Kosta Boshnjaku, one of the first Communist emissaries deployed by the soviets in Albania with the task of establishing communist cells, and possibly a Communist Party. In addition to young revolutionary activists, KONARE also attracted the members of the irredentist Committee of Kosovo, who were the sworn enemies of Ahmet Zogu and vice versa.[3] Noli and Boshnjaku managed to procure some financial support for the Committee through Comintern, affiliating them with the Balkan Federation.[4]
According to Sejfi Vllamasi's memoirs, the founder of KONARE beside Fan Noli were: Qazim Koculi, Mustafa Kruja, Riza Dani, and Xhevat Korça from the former "Krahu Kombëtar" political fraction of the Albanian Parliament, other civilians and officers as Kol Tromara, Qazim Kokoshi, Llano Borshi, Major Shefqet Korça, captains Aziz Çami and Riza Cerova; and most of the youth members of "Bashkimi" (The Union) - a former political group founded by Avni Rustemi, such as Halim Xhelo, Sejfulla Malëshova, Llazar Fundo, Qamil Çela, Demir Godelli, Selim Shpuza, Haki Stërmilli, Reshat Këlliçi, etc.[5]
The main press organ of KONARE was Liria Kombëtare (National Freedom). Early revolutionary figures like Halim Xhelo and Riza Cerova would crystallize their political persona through this newspaper.[6] In April 1927,[1] KONARE changed the name to Komiteti i Çlirimit Kombëtar (National Liberation Committee). By 1928, it came de facto under the control of Comintern; 24 young Albanians were sent to Moscow to follow their studies in high-end Soviet institutions.[7]

Despite the efforts, the committee did not pose any real threats to Zogu's regime, who from his side was elected President of Albania in 1925 (thus ending the era of the Principality of Albania), while on 1 September 1928 became Zog I, King of Albania, establishing a constitutional monarchy.[6]
Disappointed by the political overturns, Noli decided to retire from political life and move back to the US.[6] This would start the end of the committee, which would practically cease by mid 1930s. Many of its political figures moved into the parallel "National Union" organization which would continue to oppose the Zogu's regime in Albania, culminating with the assassination attempt of 1931.

References

  1. ^ a b c Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë) (1971). "Fan Noli". Studime Filologjike. Akademia e Shkencave e RPSSH, Instituti i Ghuhesise dje i Letersise (1): 3, 7. ISSN 0563-5780. OCLC 2268583. më 25 mars 1925, një konferencë, nga e cila u themelua Komiteti Nacional Revolucionar, ose, siç u quajt shkur- timisht, «Konare»...
    Nt Prill te vitit 1927, «Konare»-ja u kthye ne Komitet te Clirimit Kombetar...Me organin e tij te shtypit u demaskua imperializmi boteror...
  2. ^ Pano 1992, p.23
  3. ^ Vllamasi & Verli 2000, "Një pjesë me rëndësi e emigrantëve, me inisiativën dhe ndërmjetësinë e Koço Boshnjakut, u muarrën vesh me “Cominternin”, si grup, me emër “KONARE” (Komiteti Revolucionar Kombëtar), për t’u ndihmuar pa kusht gjatë aktivitetit të tyre nacional, ashtu siç janë ndihmuar edhe kombet e tjerë të vegjël, që ndodheshin nën zgjedhë të imperialistëve, për liri e për pavarësi. Përveç kësaj pjese, edhe Shqiptarët e Kosovës, të grupuar e të organizuar nën emrin “Komiteti i Kosovës”, si grup, u ndihmuan edhe ata nga "Cominterni"."
  4. ^ Banac 1988, p.306
  5. ^ Vllamasi & Verli 2000, "Ata që muarrën pjesë në “Konare” prej opozitës së vjetër qenë: Fan Noli, Qazim Koculi, Mustafa Kruja, Riza Dani e Xhevat Korça; nga anëtarët e ish- Krahut Kombëtar, civilë e oficerë: Kol Tromara, Qazim Kokoshi, Llano Borshi, major Shefqet Korça, kapitenët Ariz Çami e Riza Cerova; shumica dërrmuese e rinisë, që kanë qënë anëtarë të shoqërisë “Bashkimi”, si: Halim Xhelo, Sejfulla Malëshova, Llazar Fundo, Qamil Çela, Demir Godelli, Selim Shpuza, Haki Stërmilli, Reshat Këlliçi etj."
  6. ^ a b c Ersoy 2010, p.155
  7. ^ Fischer 1999, p.122

Sources