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Jyeṣṭhadeva | |
---|---|

Born | c. 1500 CE |

Died | c. 1575 CE |

Residence | Alattur, near Tirur in Kerala |

Nationality | Indian |

Occupation | Astronomer-mathematician |

Known for | Authorship of Yuktibhāṣā |

Notable work | Yuktibhāṣā, Drkkarana |

Relatives | Parangngottu (Sanskritised as Parakroda) family |

Notes | |

**Jyeṣṭhadeva** (Malayalam: ജ്യേഷ്ഠദേവന്) (c. 1500 – c. 1575)^{[1]}^{[2]} was an astronomer-mathematician of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1350 – c. 1425). He is best known as the author of *Yuktibhāṣā*, a commentary in Malayalam of Tantrasamgraha by Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544). In Yuktibhāṣā, Jyeṣṭhadeva had given complete proofs and rationale of the statements in Tantrasamgraha. This was unusual for traditional Indian mathematicians of the time. An analysis of the mathematics content of Yuktibhāṣā has prompted some scholars to call it "the first textbook of calculus".^{[3]} Jyeṣṭhadeva also authored *Drk-karana* a treatise on astronomical observations.^{[4]}

There are a few references to Jyeṣṭhadeva scattered across several old manuscripts.^{[1]} From these manuscripts, one can deduce a few bare facts about the life of Jyeṣṭhadeva. He was a Nambudiri belonging to the Parangngottu family (Sanskrtised as *Parakroda*) born about the year 1500 CE. He was a pupil of Damodara and a younger contemporary of Nilakantha Somayaji. Achyuta Pisharati was a pupil of Jyeṣṭhadeva. In the concluding verse of his work titled *Uparagakriyakrama*, completed in 1592, Achyuta Pisharati has referred to Jyeṣṭhadeva as his *aged benign teacher*. From a few references in *Drkkarana*, a work believed to be of Jyeṣṭhadeva, one may conclude that Jyeṣṭhadeva lived up to about 1610 CE.

Parangngottu, the family house of Jyeṣṭhadeva, still exists in the vicinity of Trikkandiyur and Alathiyur.^{[1]} There are also several legends connected with members of Parangngottu family.

Little is known about the mathematical traditions in Kerala prior to Madhava of Sangamagrama. Vatasseri Paramesvara was a direct disciple of Madhava. Damodara was a son of Paramesvara. Nilakantha Somayaji and Jyeshthadeva were pupils of Damodara. Jyeṣṭhadeva's pupil was Achyuta Pisharati and Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri was Achyuta Pisharati's student.

Jyeṣṭhadeva is known to have composed only two works, namely, *Yuktibhāṣā* and *Drkkarana*.
The former is commentary with rationales of Tantrasamgraha of Nilakantha Somayaji and the latter is a treatise on astronomical computations.

Three factors make Yuktibhāṣā unique in the history of the development of mathematical thinking in the Indian subcontinent:

- It is composed in the spoken language of the local people, namely, the Malayalam language. This is in contrast to the centuries-old Indian tradition of composing scholarly works in the Sanskrit language which was the language of the learned.
- The work is in prose, again in contrast to the prevailing style of writing even technical manuals in verse. All the other notable works of the Kerala school are in verse.
- Most importantly, Yuktibhāṣā was composed intentionally as a manual of proofs. The very purpose of writing the book was to record in full detail the rationales of the various results discovered by mathematicians-astronomers of the Kerala school, especially of Nilakantha Somayaji. This book is proof enough to establish that the concept of proof was not unknown to Indian mathematical traditions.

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^{a}^{b}^{c}K.V. Sarma (1991). "Yuktibhāṣā of Jyeṣṭhadeva: A book of rationales in Indin mathematics and astronomy – an analytical appraisal" (PDF).*Indian Journal of History of Science*.**26**(2): 185–207. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2010. **^**[www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk]**^**P.P. Divakaran, P. P. (December 2007). "The First Textbook of Calculus: Yuktibhāṣā".*Journal of Indian Philosophy*. Springer Netherlands.**35**(5–6): 417–443. doi:10.1007/s10781-007-9029-1. ISSN 0022-1791.**^**J J O'Connor; E F Robertson (November 2000). "Jyesthadeva". School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 28 January 2010.

- Details on the English translation of Yuktibhāṣā by K. V. Sarma: Sarma, K.V., Ramasubramanian, K., Srinivas, M.D., Sriram, M.S. (2008).
*Ganita-Yukti-Bhasa (Rationales in Mathematical Astronomy) of Jyeṣṭhadeva: Volume I: Mathematics, Volume II: Astronomy*. Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. Springer jointly with Hindustan Book Agency, New Delhi, India. ISBN 978-1-84882-072-2.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (This is a critical translation of the original Malayalam text by K.V. Sarma with explanatory notes by K. Ramasubramanian, M.D. Srinivas and M.S. Sriram.) - For a review of the English translation of Yuktibhāṣā: Homer S. White (17 July 2009). "Ganita-Yukti-Bhāsā (Rationales in Mathematical Astronomy) of Jyesthadeva".
*MAA Reviews*. The Mathematical Association of America. Retrieved 30 January 2010.^{[dead link]} - R.C. Gupta (1973). "Addition and subtraction theorems for the sine and the cosine functions in medieval india" (PDF).
*Indian Journal of History of Science*.**9**(2): 164–177. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2014. - K. V. Sarma (1972).
*A history of the Kerala school of Hindu astronomy (in perspective)*. Vishveshvaranand Indological series.**55**. Vishveshvaranand Institute of Sanskrit & Indological Studies, Hoshiarpur, Panjab University. - K.V. Sarma. "Tradition of Aryabhatiya in Kerala : Revision of planetary parameters" (PDF).
*Indian Journal of History of Science*.**12**(2): 194–199. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2010. - George Gheverghese Joseph (2000).
*The Crest of the Peacock: The Non-European Roots of Mathematics*. Princeton University Press. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-691-00659-8. Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. - Plofker, Kim (2009). "7 The school of Madhava in Kerala".
*Mathematics in India*. Princeton University Press. pp. 219–254. - For a modern explanation of Jyeṣṭhadeva's proof of the power series expansion of the arctangent function: Victor J. Katz. "12".
*A history of mathematics: An introduction*(3 ed.). 2009: Addison Wesley. pp. 450–455. ISBN 978-0-321-38700-4.