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The eighteen judges of the International Criminal Court (ICC) are elected for nine-year terms by the member-countries of the court. Candidates must be nationals of those countries and they must "possess the qualifications required in their respective States for appointment to the highest judicial offices".
A judge may be disqualified from "any case in which his or her impartiality might reasonably be doubted on any ground", and a judge may be removed from office if he or she "is found to have committed serious misconduct or a serious breach of his or her duties" or is unable to exercise his or her functions.
The judges are organized into three divisions: the Pre-Trial Division, Trial Division, and Appeals Division.
All judges must be nationals of states parties to the Rome Statute, and no two judges may be nationals of the same state. They must be “persons of high moral character, impartiality and integrity who possess the qualifications required in their respective States for appointment to the highest judicial offices”, and they must "have an excellent knowledge of and be fluent in at least one of the working languages of the Court" (English and French).
Judges are elected from two lists of candidates. List A comprises candidates who have "established competence in criminal law and procedure, and the necessary relevant experience, whether as judge, prosecutor, advocate or in other similar capacity, in criminal proceedings". List B comprises candidates who have "established competence in relevant areas of international law such as international humanitarian law and the law of human rights, and extensive experience in a professional legal capacity which is of relevance to the judicial work of the Court". Elections are organised so that there are always at least nine serving judges from List A and at least five from List B.
The Assembly of States Parties is required to "take into account the need for the representation of the principal legal systems of the world, equitable geographical representation and a fair representation of female and male judges. They shall take into account the need to include judges with legal expertise on specific issues, including, but not limited to, violence against women and children." Thus, there are voting requirements established which require at least six judges to be female and at least six to be male. Additionally, each regional group of the United Nations has at least two judges. If a regional group has more than sixteen states parties this leads to a minimum voting requirement of three judges from this regional group. Therefore, from the Statute's entry into force for the Maldives on 1 December 2011, all regional groups can claim a third judge.
The following elections have taken place:
The prosecutor or any person being investigated or prosecuted may request the disqualification of a judge from "any case in which his or her impartiality might reasonably be doubted on any ground". Any request for the disqualification of a judge from a particular case is decided by an absolute majority of the other judges.
A judge may be removed from office if he or she "is found to have committed serious misconduct or a serious breach of his or her duties" or is unable to exercise his or her functions. The removal of a judge requires both a two-thirds majority of the other judges and a two-thirds majority of the states parties.
The Presidency is the organ responsible for the proper administration of the court, except for the Office of the Prosecutor. The Presidency oversees the activities of the Registry and organises the work of the judicial divisions. It also has some responsibilities in the area of external relations, such as negotiating agreements on behalf of the court and the promoting public awareness and understanding of the institution.
The Presidency comprises the President and the First and Second Vice-Presidents – three judges of the court who are elected to the Presidency by their fellow judges for a maximum of two three-year terms. The firsts President of the ICC were Philippe Kirsch, who served from 2003 to 2009, and Sang-hyun Song from 2009 to 2015. As of March 2015, the President is Silvia Fernández de Gurmendi from Argentina; Joyce Aluoch of Kenya is First Vice-President and Kuniko Ozaki of Japan is Second Vice-President. All three were elected on 11 March 2015.
The eighteen judges are organized into three divisions: the Pre-Trial Division, Trial Division and Appeals Division. The Pre-Trial Division (which comprises the First Vice President and six other judges) confirms indictments and issues international arrest warrants. The Trial Division (the Second Vice President and five other judges) presides over trials. Decisions of the Pre-Trial and Trial Divisions may be appealed to the Appeals Division (the President and four other judges). Judges are assigned to divisions according to their qualifications and experience.
As of June 2015, after the 2015 elections, there are 18 full-time judges who are supplemented by one judge whose term expired on 11 March 2012 but who continues to serve as an ad litem judge for the duration of the trial that had started with her on the bench.
|Name||Country||Took office||Term End||Division
|Joyce Aluoch||Kenya||2009||2018||Trial||First Vice President|
|Chung Chang-ho||South Korea||2015||2024||Pre-Trial|
|Silvia Fernández de Gurmendi||Argentina||2009||2018||Appeals||President|
|Robert Fremr||Czech Republic||2012||2021||Trial|
|Geoffrey A. Henderson||Trinidad and Tobago||2013||2021||Trial|
|Olga Venecia Herrera Carbuccia||Dominican Republic||2012||2021||Trial|
|Antoine Kesia-Mbe Mindua||Democratic Republic of the Congo||2015||2024||Pre-Trial|
|Sanji Mmasenono Monageng||Botswana||2009||2018||Appeals|
|Howard Morrison||United Kingdom||2012||2021||Appeals|
|Kuniko Ozaki||Japan||2009||2018||Trial||Second Vice President|
|Raul Cano Pangalangan||Philippines||2015||2021||Pre-Trial|
|Marc Perrin de Brichambaut||France||2015||2024||Pre-Trial|
|Sylvia Steiner||Brazil||2003||2012||Trial||Ad litem judge|||
|Christine van den Wyngaert||Belgium||2009||2018||Appeals|
As of June 2015, 7 of the 19 judges (including ad litem) are female. The geographical representation is as follows:
|Regional group||Number of judges|
|Western European and other states||5|
|Latin American and Caribbean states||3 (+ 1 ad litem)|
|Eastern European states||3|
The Appeals Chamber consists of the whole Appeals Division whereas the Pre-Trial Chambers cover whole situations and the Trial Chambers single cases (which can consist of one or more accused).
|Appeals||Monageng (President), Fernández de Gurmendi, van den Wyngaert, Morrison, Hofmański|||
|Trial Chamber I||Tarfusser (Presiding Judge), Herrera Carbuccia, Henderson||Gbagbo trial and Blé Goudé trial (Côte d'Ivoire)|||
|Trial Chamber II||Perrin de Brichambaut (Presiding Judge), Herrera Carbuccia, Kovács||Lubanga reparations proceedings (DR Congo)
Katanga reparations proceedings (DR Congo)
Ngudjolo Chui compensation request (DR Congo)
|Trial Chamber III||Steiner (Presiding Judge), Aluoch, Ozaki||Bemba trial (Central African Rep.)|
|Trial Chamber IV||Aluoch (Presiding Judge), Eboe-Osuji, Henderson||Banda and Jerbo trial (Darfur [Sudan])|
|Trial Chamber V(a)||Eboe-Osuji (Presiding Judge), Herrera Carbuccia, Fremr||Ruto and Sang trial (Kenya)|
|Trial Chamber V(b)||Ozaki (Presiding Judge), Fremr, Henderson||Kenyatta trial (Kenya)|
|Trial Chamber VI||Fremr (Presiding Judge), Ozaki, Chung||Ntaganda trial (DR Congo)|
|Trial Chamber VII||Schmitt (Presiding Judge), Perrin de Brichaumbaut, Pangalangan||Bemba, Kilolo, Mangenda, Babala Wandu and Arido trial (Central African Republic)|
|Pre-Trial Chamber I||Aluoch, Tarfusser, Kovács||Côte d'Ivoire|||
|Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Pre-Trial Chamber II||Tarfusser, Perrin de Brichambaut, Chung||Uganda|||
|Central African Republic I|
|Central African Republic II|
|Trial Chamber I||Fulford (Presiding Judge), Blattmann, Odio Benito||Lubanga trial (DR Congo)|||
|Trial Chamber II||Cotte (Presiding Judge), Diarra, van den Wyngaert||Katanga and Ngudjolo Chui trial (DR Congo)|||
|Tuiloma Neroni Slade||Samoa||2003||2006||Defeated in 2006 election.|
|Maureen Harding Clark||Ireland||2003||2006||Resigned to serve on the High Court of Ireland.|
|Claude Jorda||France||2003||2007||Resigned "for reasons of permanent ill-health".|
|Karl Hudson-Phillips||Trinidad and Tobago||2003||2007||Resigned "for personal reasons".|
|Navanethem Pillay||South Africa||2003||2008||Resigned to serve as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.|
|Philippe Kirsch||Canada||2003||2009||Not eligible for re-election. President of the Court from 2003 to 2009.|
|Georghios Pikis||Cyprus||2003||2009||Not eligible for re-election.|
|Mauro Politi||Italy||2003||2009||Not eligible for re-election.|
|Fumiko Saiga||Japan||2007, 2009||2009||Died in office.|
|Daniel David Ntanda Nsereko||Uganda||2007||2012||Not eligible for re-election.|
|René Blattmann||Bolivia||2003||2012||Not eligible for re-election in 2009, remained in office as member of Trial Chamber I.|
|Adrian Fulford||United Kingdom||2003||2012||Not eligible for re-election in 2012, remained in office as member of Trial Chamber I.|
|Elizabeth Odio Benito||Costa Rica||2003||2012||Not eligible for re-election in 2012, remained in office as member of Trial Chamber I.|
|Anthony Carmona||Trinidad and Tobago||2012||2013||Resigned to become President of Trinidad and Tobago.|
|Bruno Cotte||France||2007||2014||Not eligible for re-election in 2012, remained in office as member of Trial Chamber II.|
|Fatoumata Dembélé Diarra||Mali||2003||2014||Not eligible for re-election in 2012, remained in office as member of Trial Chamber II.|
|Miriam Defensor Santiago||Philippines||2012||2014||Resigned due to health issues.|
|Hans-Peter Kaul||Germany||2003, 2006||2014||Resigned due to health issues.|
|Erkki Kourula||Finland||2003, 2006||2015||Not eligible for re-election in 2015.|
|Akua Kuenyehia||Ghana||2003, 2006||2015||Not eligible for re-election in 2015.|
|Sang-Hyun Song||South Korea||2003, 2006||2015||Not eligible for re-election in 2015.|
|Ekaterina Trendafilova||Bulgaria||2006||2015||Not eligible for re-election in 2015.|
|Anita Ušacka||Latvia||2003, 2006||2015||Not eligible for re-election in 2015.|
In 2003, the first judges were divided into three different classes of terms: those with term ending in 2006 (and re-eligible), those with term ending in 2009 and those with term ending in 2012. This list shows to which class the different judges belong.
|Period||Class of judges with initial term ending in 2006||Class of judges with initial term ending in 2009||Class of judges with initial term ending in 2012||Period|
|2003–2006||Kaul, Kourula, Kuenyehia, Slade, Song, Ušacka||Blattmann, Jorda, Kirsch, Pikis, Pillay, Politi
Jorda resigned in 2007
Saiga elected in 2007
Pillay resigned in 2008
|Clark, Diarra, Fulford, Hudson-Phillips, Odio Benito, Steiner
Clark resigned in 2006
Hudson-Phillips resigned in 2007
Cotte, Nsereko elected in 2007
|2006–2009||Kaul, Kourula, Kuenyehia, Song, Trendafilova, Ušacka
Kaul resigned in 2014
|2009–2012||Aluoch, Monageng, Saiga, (Shahabuddeen), Tarfusser, van den Wyngaert
Shahabuddeen did not take office in 2009
Saiga died in 2009
Fernandez de Gurmendi, Ozaki elected in 2009
|2012–2015||Carmona, Defensor-Santiago, Eboe-Osuji, Fremr, Herrera Carbuccia, Morrison
Carmona resigned in 2013
Henderson elected in 2013
Defensor-Santiago resigned in 2014
Pangalangan elected in 2015
|2015–2018||Chung, Hofmański, Kovács, Mindua, Perrin de Brichambaut, Schmitt||2015–2018|
|2018–2021||To be elected at the 16th session of the Assembly of State Parties in 2017
Will be in office 2018–2027.
|2021–2024||To be elected at the 19th session of the Assembly of State Parties in 2020
Will be in office 2021–2030.