Sir Joseph LarmorFRSFRSE DCL LLD (11 July 1857 – 19 May 1942) was an Irishphysicist and mathematician who made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the electron theory of matter. His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a theoretical physics book published in 1900.
Larmor however did not possess the correct velocity transformations, which include the addition of velocities law, which were later discovered by Henri Poincaré. Larmor predicted the phenomenon of time dilation, at least for orbiting electrons, by writing (Larmor 1897): "... individual electrons describe corresponding parts of their orbits in times shorter for the [rest] system in the ratio (1 – v2/c2)1/2". He also verified that the FitzGerald–Lorentz contraction (length contraction) should occur for bodies whose atoms were held together by electromagnetic forces. In his book Aether and Matter (1900), he again presented the Lorentz transformations, time dilation and length contraction (treating these as dynamic rather than kinematic effects). Larmor was opposed to the spacetime interpretation of the Lorentz transformation in special relativity because he continued to believe in an absolute aether. He was also critical of the curvature of space of general relativity, to the extent that he claimed that an absolute time was essential to astronomy (Larmor 1924, 1927).
1884, "Least action as the fundamental formulation in dynamics and physics", Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society.
1891, "On the theory of electrodynamics", Proceedings of the Royal Society.
1892, "On the theory of electrodynamics, as affected by the nature of the mechanical stresses in excited dielectrics", Proceedings of the Royal Society.
1893–97, "Dynamical Theory of the Electric and Luminiferous Medium", Proceedings of the Royal Society; Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series of 3 papers containing Larmor's physical theory of the universe.
1896, "The influence of a magnetic field on radiation frequency", Proceedings of the Royal Society.
1896, "On the absolute minimum of optical deviation by a prism", Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Larmor, J. (1897). "A Dynamical Theory of the Electric and Luminiferous Medium. Part III. Relations with Material Media". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 190: 205–493. Bibcode:1897RSPTA.190..205L. doi:10.1098/rsta.1897.0020.
1898, "Note on the complete scheme of electrodynamic equations of a moving material medium, and electrostriction", Proceedings of the Royal Society.
1898, "On the origin of magneto-optic rotation", Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Warwick, Andrew, "On the Role of the FitzGerald–Lorentz Contraction Hypothesis in the Development of Joseph Larmor's Electronic Theory of Matter". Archive for History of Exact Sciences 43 (1991): 29–91.
Darrigol, O. (1994), "The Electron Theories of Larmor and Lorentz: A Comparative Study", Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 24 (2): 265–336, doi:10.2307/27757725, JSTOR27757725