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John the Ripper

John the Ripper
Developer(s) Solar Designer and community
Stable release
1.8.0 / May 30, 2013 (2013-05-30)
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Operating system Cross-platform
Type Password cracking
License GNU General Public License
Proprietary (Pro version)

John the Ripper is a free password cracking software tool.[1] Initially developed for the Unix operating system, it now runs on fifteen different platforms (eleven of which are architecture-specific versions of Unix, DOS, Win32, BeOS, and OpenVMS). It is one of the most popular password testing and breaking programs[2] as it combines a number of password crackers into one package, autodetects password hash types, and includes a customizable cracker. It can be run against various encrypted password formats including several crypt password hash types most commonly found on various Unix versions (based on DES, MD5, or Blowfish), Kerberos AFS, and Windows NT/2000/XP/2003 LM hash. Additional modules have extended its ability to include MD4-based password hashes and passwords stored in LDAP, MySQL, and others.[3]

Sample output

Here is a sample output in a Debian environment.

# cat pass.txt
# john -w:password.lst pass.txt
Loaded 1 password hash (Traditional DES [24/32 4K])
example         (user)
guesses: 1  time: 0:00:00:00 100%  c/s: 752  trying: 12345 - pookie

Attack types

One of the modes John can use is the dictionary attack. It takes text string samples (usually from a file, called a wordlist, containing words found in a dictionary or real passwords cracked before), encrypting it in the same format as the password being examined (including both the encryption algorithm and key), and comparing the output to the encrypted string. It can also perform a variety of alterations to the dictionary words and try these. Many of these alterations are also used in John's single attack mode, which modifies an associated plaintext (such as a username with an encrypted password) and checks the variations against the hashes.

John also offers a brute force mode. In this type of attack, the program goes through all the possible plaintexts, hashing each one and then comparing it to the input hash. John uses character frequency tables to try plaintexts containing more frequently used characters first. This method is useful for cracking passwords which do not appear in dictionary wordlists, but it takes a long time to run.

See also


  1. ^ Anonymous (2001). Maximum Linux Security (2 ed.). Sams Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 0-672-32134-3. 
  2. ^ "Password Crackers". Concise Cybersecurity. 
  3. ^ "John the Ripper". 

External links