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Jiexiu

Jiexiu
介休市
County-level city
Xianshenlou
Xianshenlou
Jiexiu in Jinzhong
Jiexiu in Jinzhong
Jiexiu is located in Shanxi
Jiexiu
Jiexiu
Location in Shanxi
Coordinates: 37°01′37″N 111°55′01″E / 37.027°N 111.917°E / 37.027; 111.917
Country People's Republic of China
Province Shanxi
Prefecture-level city Jinzhong
Area[citation needed]
 • Total 744 km2 (287 sq mi)
Elevation 756 m (2,480 ft)
Population ([when?])[citation needed]
 • Total 370,000
 • Density 500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code 031200
Area code(s) 0354
Jiexiu
Chinese 介休
Literal meaning City of Jie Zitui's Eternal Rest
Former names
Mianshang
Traditional Chinese 綿
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaning Downy[a] Heights
Pingchang
Chinese
Literal meaning Peaceful-&-Prosperous
Jiezhou
Chinese
Literal meaning Jie Prefecture

Jiexiu is a county-level city in the central part of Shanxi Province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Jinzhong and is located in the latter's western confines. It has jurisdiction over Mianshan, the site of the AAAAA-rated tourist attraction Mount Mian.

Names

The territory around Mt Mian was known as Mianshang under the Zhou.[1] By the Jin, the territory was known as Dingyang and the settlement at Jiexiu proper as Pingchang.[2] Under the Northern Wei (4th–5th century), both became known as Jiexiu Commandery.[2] Under the Tang, this was renamed Jiezhou AD 618–627.[2]

History

Mianshang was supposedly set apart by Duke Chong'er to endow sacrifices for his retainer Jie Zhitui c. 636 BC. The early histories state that Jie had loyally followed Chong'er in exile around China for 19 years but, when Chong'er was installed as duke of Jin by a Qin army, Jie had chosen to retire as a hermit rather than debase himself by asking for favors.[3][4][5][6][7] In time, this caused him to be seen as a Taoist immortal.[8] Later legend embellished the tale, having Jie save Chong'er from starvation[9] by cooking a soup made from meat from his own thigh[10][11] only to be killed when Chong'er listened to advice from Jin courtiers that the way to drive him out of the mountains was to light a forest fire.[12] The idea was that Jie's duty to his mother would overcome his pride and they would flee together;[13] instead, their corpses were found days later beneath a willow.[13][9][12] Temples were erected in Jie's honor[9] and, by the Han, the people of Shanxi tried to curry favor with his spirit by observing a Cold Food Festival in the dead of winter.[14][15][16] They ignored repeated attempts to ban it[15][17][18][19][20] although, as it moved to spring[21] and spread throughout China,[22][23] it eventually developed into the present-day Tomb-Sweeping Festival.[24][25]

During the Warring States Period, the area of Jiexiu was held by Zhao before its conquest by Qin.[26] Under the Han, it was part of Dingyang County (t , s , Dìngyáng Xiàn) in Shang Commandery.[27] Jiexiu County was created under the Jin, but with its seat southeast of the current town.[2] The Northern Wei moved to the present location—then known as Pingchang—around AD 484 and made it the seat of a commandery.[2] This was made a county again by the Sui in 598, restored by the Tang in 617, and changed to a prefecture the next year.[2]

Climate

Jiexiu experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). Spring is dry, with frequent dust storms, followed by early summer heat waves. Summer tends to be warm to hot with most of the year's rainfall concentrated in July and August. Winter is long and cold, but dry and sunny. Because of the aridity, there tends to be considerable diurnal variation in temperature, except during the summer. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −4.4 °C (24.1 °F) in January to 23.9 °C (75.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 10.64 °C (51.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 49% in July to 60% in May, the city receives 2,425 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Jiexiu (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
5.7
(42.3)
12.0
(53.6)
20.1
(68.2)
25.5
(77.9)
29.3
(84.7)
30.1
(86.2)
28.3
(82.9)
24.1
(75.4)
18.3
(64.9)
10.2
(50.4)
3.9
(39)
17.5
(63.5)
Average low °C (°F) −10
(14)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.1
(30)
5.5
(41.9)
10.6
(51.1)
15.0
(59)
18.4
(65.1)
16.9
(62.4)
11.0
(51.8)
4.8
(40.6)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7.4
(18.7)
4.6
(40.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.7
(0.146)
5.1
(0.201)
14.1
(0.555)
23.2
(0.913)
32.0
(1.26)
55.7
(2.193)
111.7
(4.398)
103.7
(4.083)
55.9
(2.201)
34.2
(1.346)
11.4
(0.449)
4.1
(0.161)
454.8
(17.906)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.2 3.1 4.8 5.6 6.4 9.4 12.5 11.4 8.4 6.3 3.5 1.7 75.3
Average relative humidity (%) 51 50 54 50 54 60 72 78 73 66 61 55 60
Mean monthly sunshine hours 175.6 167.3 189.8 227.7 259.5 240.1 217.5 214.6 195.5 194.8 175.5 166.7 2,424.6
Percent possible sunshine 58 55 52 58 60 55 49 51 53 56 57 56 55
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Government

Jiexiu administers an area divided into 5 subdistricts, 7 towns, and 3 townships:

Subdistricts
Name Simp. Trad. Pinyin
Beiguan 北关街道 北關街道 Běiguān Jiēdào
Xiguan 西关街道 西關街道 Xīguān Jiēdào
Dongnan 东南街道 東南街道 Dōngnán Jiēdào
Xinan 西南街道 西南街道 Xīnán Jiēdào
Beitan 北坛街道 北關街道 Běitán Jiēdào
Towns
Yi'an 义安镇 義安鎮 Yì'ānzhèn
Zhanglan 张兰镇 張蘭鎮 Zhānglánzhèn
Lianfu 连福镇 連福鎮 Liánfúzhèn
Hongshan 洪山镇 洪山鎮 Hóngshānzhèn
Longfeng 龙凤镇 龍鳳鎮 Lóngfèngzhèn
Mianshan 绵山镇 綿山鎮 Miánshānzhèn
Yitang 义棠镇 義棠鎮 Yìtángzhèn
Townships
Chengguan 城关乡 城關鄉 Chéngguānxiāng
Songgu 宋古乡 宋古鄉 Sònggǔxiāng
Sanjia 三佳乡 三佳鄉 Sānjiāxiāng

Transport

Notes

  1. ^ 綿⟩ anciently referred to silk floss and by extension "weak", "soft", "downy", although in modern Chinese it more often refers to cotton.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Xiao & al. (1996), p. 274.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Xiong (2016).
  3. ^ Legge (1872), p. 191–2.
  4. ^ Lü Buwei & al., "An Account of Jie", Master Lü's Spring & Autumn Annals [《呂氏春秋》, Lǚshì Chūnqiū] . (in Chinese)
  5. ^ Knoblock & al. (2000), p. 263–4.
  6. ^ Nienhauser & al. (2006), pp. 331–5.
  7. ^ Sima Qian & al., "The Dynasty of Jin", Records of the Grand Historian [《史記》, Shǐjì], Vol. 39 . (in Chinese).
  8. ^ Pseudo-Liu Xiang (ed.), "Jiezi Tui", Collected Biographies of the Immortals [《列仙傳》, Lièxiān Zhuàn] . (in Chinese)
  9. ^ a b c Zhang (2015).
  10. ^ Liao (1959), Bk. VIII, Ch. xxvii.
  11. ^ Legge & al. (1891), Bk. XXIX, §10.
  12. ^ a b Huang & al. (2016), p. 82–3.
  13. ^ a b Lan & al. (1996).
  14. ^ Pokora (1975), pp. 122 & 136–7.
  15. ^ a b Fan Ye, Book of the Later Han [《後漢書》, Hòu Hàn Shū], Vol. 61, §2024 . (in Chinese)
  16. ^ Holzman (1986), p. 52–4.
  17. ^ Li Fang, Imperial Reader of the Taiping Era [《太平御覽》, Tàipíng Yùlǎn], Vol. 28, §8a; Vol. 30, §6a–b; Vol. 869, §7b . (in Chinese)
  18. ^ Fang Xuanling, Book of Jin [《晉書》, Jìn Shū], Vol. 105, §2749–50 . (in Chinese)
  19. ^ Wei Shou, Book of Wei [《魏書》, Wèi Shū], Vol. 7A, §140, & Vol. 7B, §179 . (in Chinese)
  20. ^ Holzman (1986), pp. 54–9.
  21. ^ Holzman (1986), p. 69.
  22. ^ Essential Techniques for the Welfare of the People [《齊民要術》, Qímín Yàoshù], Vol. 9, §521  (in Chinese)
  23. ^ Holzman (1986), pp. 60–1.
  24. ^ Zhang (2017).
  25. ^ Wu (2014), p. 126
  26. ^ Barbieri-Low & al. (2015), p. 1021.
  27. ^ Barbieri-Low & al. (2015), pp. lvi, lxvi, & 1021.

Bibliography

External links