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Jian (era)

Jian (治安) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name"), also known as Chi'an, after Kannin and before Manju. This period spanned the years from February 1021[1] through July 1024.[2] The reigning emperor was Go-Ichijō-tennō (後一条天皇).[3]

Change of Era

  • 1021 Jian gannen (治安元年): The era name was changed to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Kannin 5, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month of 1021.[4]

Events of the Jian era

  • 1023 (Jian 3, 4th month): An epidemic in Kyoto was so severe that there were corpses in the streets;[5] disease spread throughout the country.[6]
  • 1023 (Jian 3, 10th month): Fujiwara no Michinaga visits Mt. Koya.[7]
  • December 29, 1023 (Jian 3, 14th day of the 11th month): a lunar eclipse.[8]


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kannin" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 474, p. 474, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File Archived 2012-05-24 at
  2. ^ Nussbaum. "Manjū" at p. 607., p. 607, at Google Books
  3. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 156-159; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 307-310; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 195-196.
  4. ^ Brown, p. 310.
  5. ^ Dykstra, Yoshiko Kurata. (2001). The Konjaku Tales: from a Medieval Japanese Collection, Vol. 2, p. 13.
  6. ^ Horton, Sarah J. (2007). Living Buddhist Statues in Early Medieval and Modern Japan, p. 143., p. 143, at Google Books
  7. ^ Nihon Kiristokyō Kyōgikai. (2001). Japanese Religions, Vols. 26-27, pp.34-35.
  8. ^ Pankenier, David. (1999). Archaeoastronomy in East Asia: Historical Observational Records of Comets and Meteor Showers from China, Japan, and Korea, p. 89., p. 89, at Google Books


  • Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
  • Varley, H. Paul. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405; OCLC 6042764

External links

Preceded by
Era or nengō

Succeeded by