Neighbourhood in Kolkata (Calcutta)
Jaynagar Majilpur Municipality
|District||South 24 Parganas|
|Established||1 April 1869|
|• Body||Jaynagar Majilpur Municipality|
|• Total||5.85 km2 (2.26 sq mi)|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|• Density||4,400/km2 (11,000/sq mi)|
|• Additional official||English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||+91 3218 220/221/222|
|Vehicle registration||WB-01 to WB-10, WB-19 to WB-22, WB-95 to WB-99|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Jaynagar (SC)|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Jaynagar (SC)|
Jaynagar Majilpur, popularly known as Jaynagar, is a city and a municipality of South 24 Parganas district in the Indian State of West Bengal. It is situated in the southern suburbs of Kolkata. As an urban setup in the vicinity of the Kolkata, the city is within the area of Greater Kolkata. It is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA). In fact, Jaynagar and Majilpur are two separate towns. Since the formation of the municipality, these two towns are known together as Jaynagar Majilpur. The city is very famous for the confectionery of Jaynagarer Moa.
The town of Jaynagar is an ancient settlement. The name of Jaynagar comes from the name of the local goddess "Joychandi" (জয়চণ্ডী), from which the town derived the name, "Joychanditala" (জয়চণ্ডীতলা). Over time it became "Joychandinagar" (জয়চণ্ডীনগর) and then "Joynagar" or "Jaynagar" (জয়নগর).
The town of Majilpur is another ancient settlement. The etymology of the name is an interesting one. Originally the Ganges would flow over where the town is, but slowly it started silting down. This silting is called "Moje Jaowa" (মজে যাওয়া) in Bengali language, from which the town derived the name, "Mojapur" (মজাপুর). Over time it became "Mojpur" (মজপুর), "Mojipur" (মজিপুর) and then "Mojilpur" or "Majilpur" (মজিলপুর).
The town of Majilpur carries the memory of a very significant incident in the history of the Bengal. When Raja Pratapaditya Roy, the last Independent Hindu king of Bengal at Jessore was defeated by the Mughal forces, the State Diwan's (Grand Vizier) family and the State Priest's family were forced to flee to avoid persecution and conversion. They settled down in the Majilpur town to form the estate of the Duttas, and the Brahmin priest, Sree Krishna Udgata, who came over, settled down in what is today the Bhattacharya Para (ভট্টাচার্য পাড়া). All the Bhattacharyas in the town are his scions, with the current 13th generation being settled out of the town.
It was also a centre for active freedom fighting, with names like Kanailal Bhattacharya and Rajaram Bhattacharya to name a few.
The town is famous for the ancient Dhanwantary Kali Temple, believed to be very benevolent, who listens to the prayers of her devotees promptly. An annual event is held, called the "Besher Mela" (বেশের মেলা), where the goddess Kali is dressed up as Radha Krishna and other goddesses. It attracts thousands of devotees, and is one of the most iconic yearly events in the town.
Also, by the express direction of the Dhanwantary Kali, every year, during Kali Puja, it is mandatory to host a Kali Puja in every Brahmin household of the place. It used to be a big annual festival, with hundreds of houses performing Kali Puja on the night of the Diwali, and going out on the next day in a beautifully orchestrated procession, going around the town of Majilpur, before the immersion or the "Bisarjan" (বিসর্জন). However, over the past few years, the number of houses performing Kali Puja has fallen drastically, now performed in only twenty odd houses. This has been mainly due to the gradual outward immigration of people from the hamlet, the reluctancy of the younger generation, and their inability to get hold of funds considering the deteriorating economic condition of Bengal, the rise of public subscription or locally called "Barowari Puja" (বারোয়ারী) and also the rise of Muslim immigrants and converts, who have posed problems while the peaceful immersion procession was on its way.
The town has a largely haunted ancient crematorium, by the name of "Buro'r Ghaat" (বুড়োর ঘাট) or the Old man's Ghaat, which was connected to the Ganges at one point of time in history, but has silted up since.
Jaynagar Majilpur city is located at . It has an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft).
Jaynagar Majilpur is subject to a tropical wet-and-dry climate that is designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "very high damage risk".
The annual mean temperature is 26.8 °C (80.2 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 19–30 °C (66–86 °F). Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June. Winter lasts for roughly two-and-a-half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 9–11 °C (48–52 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, with daily temperatures ranging from 27–37 °C (81–99 °F); January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 12–23 °C (54–73 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 43.9 °C (111.0 °F), and the lowest is 5 °C (41 °F). The winter is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the city throughout this season. Often, in April–June, the city is struck by heavy rains or dusty squalls that are followed by thunderstorms or hailstorms, bringing cooling relief from the prevailing humidity. These thunderstorms are convective in nature, and are known locally as kal bôishakhi (কালবৈশাখী), or "Nor'westers" in English.
Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south-west summer monsoon lash Jaynagar Majilpur between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of about 1,850 mm (73 in). The highest monthly rainfall total occurs in July and August. In these months often incessant rain for days brings live to a stall for the city dwellers. The city receives 2,528 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in March. Jaynagar Majilpur has been hit by several cyclones; these include systems occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed thousands.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
As per 2011 Census of India, Jaynagar Majilpur city had a total population of 25,922, of which 13,234 (51%) were males and 12,688 (49%) were females. Population below 6 years was 2,277. The total number of literates was 20,898 (88.38% of the population over 6 years).
As of 2001 Census of India, Jaynagar Majilpur city had a total population of 23,319. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. It has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 71%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
There is a Jaynagar Majilpur Municipality, which is one of the oldest municipalities in the whole country. This urban local body was established in 1 April 1869 . It is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Jaynagar Majilpur. This civic administrative body administers an area of 5.85 square kilometres (2.26 sq mi). It is divided into 14 administrative wards. As per 2015 municipal election, it is being controlled by the Indian National Congress.
Jaynagar Police Station is responsible for law enforcement in the city. It has jurisdiction over Jaynagar Majilpur Municipality and Jaynagar I & Jaynagar II Community Development Blocks. The area covered is 438.06 square kilometres (169.14 sq mi).
Railway is the primary mode of transport of Jaynagar Majilpur city. The entire area of this city is served by the Jaynagar Majilpur railway station on the Sealdah–Namkhana line of Kolkata Suburban Railway with an approximate 49 kilometres (30 mi) distance from Sealdah railway station. It is under the jurisdiction of Eastern Railway zone. Jaynagar Majilpur railway station is one of the busiest railway stations of Sealdah railway division. More than 30 pairs of E.M.U. Local Trains ply through the railway station on a daily basis.
Jaynagar Majilpur city is also connected with Roadway. The entire area of this city is well connected through the State Highway–1. Buses like CTC, CSTC, WBSTC, Express ply their trade here. Buses available for all over Kolkata and suburbs.
Initially, most of the residents of Jaynagar Majilpur city were government employees. Gradually, the importance of the city increased due to its geographic location and now it is also a business hub. Due to its historical importance, the city also earns a good number of tourists, thus making tourism another prominent industry there.
The city has been witnessing radical changes, along with rapid development in segments like industry, real estate and education, since the advent of the twenty-first century. The changes are with respect to infrastructure and industrial growth for knowledge-based industries. Housing co-operatives and flats, shopping malls, multiplexes, hotels, sports complexes have also come up.
The culture milieu in the Jaynagar Majilpur city reflects the usual cultural characteristics of similar cities in West Bengal. The educated middle–class community continues to perpetuate the Bengali cultural manifestations like drama, recitation, classical music, songs and dances, while young Turks take a rather revolutionary stand and let out their feeling in the form of minor little magazines and socially relevant functions like health check up camps, blood donation camps etc.
Jaynagar Majilpur city's schools are either run by the Government of West Bengal or by private organisations. Schools mainly use Bengali or English as the medium of instruction. The schools are affiliated with the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Under the 10+2 plan, after completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in a school with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education (WBCHSE), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Students usually choose from one of three streams — liberal arts, commerce or science, though vocational streams are also available. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programmed.
The most popular sports in Jaynagar Majilpur city are Football and Cricket. There are many large playgrounds. The municipality owned playground (ঈন্দিরা উদ্যান) is the main sports complex in this city which has hosted many district, state and national level matches.
There are one municipality operated hospital (মাতৃমঙ্গল ও শিশুমঙ্গল) and many privately operated nursing homes and diagnostic centres in Jaynagar Majilpur city.
Jaynagar Majilpur city is one of the major shopping areas of South 24 Parganas district. There are many shopping malls in this city where all types of branded products are available.
Some small local newspapers and magazines are there. However the scenario is dominated by the media of Kolkata. Bengali newspapers like Anandabazar Patrika, Bartaman, Sangbad Pratidin, Aajkal, Ei Samay etc. are widely circulated regional newspapers. English newspapers such as The Statesman, The Telegraph, The Times of India, Hindustan Times etc. are also available.
Kolkata's radio stations are available here. Twelve local FM stations: Friends FM (91.9 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), Radio One (94.3 MHz), Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), AIR FM Gold (100.2 MHz), AIR FM Vividh Bharati (101.8 MHz), Fever FM (104 MHz), Radio ISHQ (104.8 MHz), Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz), Aamar FM (106.2 MHz) and AIR FM Rainbow (107 MHz) are available.
The state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan provides two free terrestrial channels, while MSO, DTH operators provide a mix of Bengali, Hindi, English and other regional channels via Cable and DTH.
All leading Banks and ATMs are present in the Jaynagar Majilpur city including Bank of India, United Bank of India, State Bank of India, Axis Bank, Punjab National Bank, Allahabad Bank, Bandhan Bank etc. Also the city has its own bank called "The Jaynagar-Majilpur People's Co-operative Bank Limited".