Community development block
|District||South 24 Parganas|
|• Total||186.25 km2 (71.91 sq mi)|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|• Density||1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5.30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||+91 3218|
|Vehicle registration||WB-01 to WB-10, WB-19 to WB-22, WB-95 to WB-99|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Jaynagar (SC)|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Jaynagar (SC), Kultali (SC)|
During the Bengal Famine of 1943, the Communist Party of India provided relief to the peasantry of the Sundarbans area. In September 1946 Bangiya Pradeshik Kisan Sabha decided to launch the Tebhaga movement. The peasant movement broke out in Kakdwip, Sonarpur, Bhangar and Canning. Kakdwip and Namkhana were the storm centres of the movement. The movement aimed at improving the share of the peasant engaged as sharecroppers. The prominent leaders of the movement were: Kansari Halder, Ashoke Bose and Rash Behari Ghosh. Peasant leaders like Gajen Malik, Manik Hazra, Jatin Maity, Bijoy Mondal and others rose to prominence. The movement continued till 1950, when the Bargadari Act was enacted. The Act recognised the right of the sharecropper to two-thirds of the produce when he provided the inputs.
During 1946-1950, the Tebhaga movement in several parts of the 24 Parganas district led to the enactment of the Bargadari Act. Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. In 1967, West Bengal witnessed peasant uprising, against non-implementation of land reforms legislation, starting from Kheadaha gram panchayat in Sonarpur CD block. From 1977 on wards major land reforms took place in West Bengal under the Left Front government. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed among the peasants. Subsequently, Operation Barga was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Jaynagar II CD block 2,264.89 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 2,034.12 acres or 89.88% of the vested land was distributed. The total number of patta (document) holders was 1,342.
Jaynagar II CD block is located at. It has an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft).
Jaynagar II CD block is bounded by Jaynagar I CD block in the north, Kultali CD block in the east, Sundarbans forests in the south, Mathurapur II, Mathurapur I and Mandirbazar CD blocks in the west.
South 24 Parganas district is divided into two distinct physiographic zones: the marine-riverine delta in the north and the marine delta zone in the south. As the sea receded southwards, in the sub-recent geological period, a large low-lying plain got exposed. Both tidal inflows and the rivers have been depositing sediments in this plain. The periodical collapse of both the natural levees and man-made embankments speed up the process of filling up of the depressions containing brackish water wetlands. The marine delta in the south is formed of interlacing tidal channels. As non-saline water for irrigation is scarce, agriculture is monsoon dominated. Some parts of the wetlands are still preserved for raising fish.
Jaynagar II CD block has an area of 186.25 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 122 gram sansads (village councils), 49 mouzas and 49 inhabited villages, as per the District Statistical Handbook, South Twenty-four Parganas. Jaynagar police station serves this block.Headquarters of this CD block is at PO Ramkrishna Ashram - 743338.
The Sundarbans area, in the south of the district, includes 102 deltaic islands, out of which 54 are inhabited and the rest is reserved forest. The area spread over 54,000 km2 is home to 3.9 million people or around 40% of the population of the district. As per December 2001 census there were 271 Royal Bengal Tigers and other animals in the Indian portion of the Sundarban forest, spread across 42,000 km2. The floor of the Sundarbans varies from 0.9 m to 2.11 m above sea level. Tidal saline water from the Bay of Bengal alternatively drowns and exposes the islands twice a day throughout the year. Around 3,500 km of earthen embankments, protecting the inhabited islands, have been facing the daily onslaught in a cyclone-prone area for more than a century.
Clearing of the forests effectively started in 1781 and in about a century Hingalganj, Hasnabad, Sandeshkhali I, Sandeshkhali II, Minakhan and Haroa CD Blocks (all in North 24 Parganas district in 2016), Canning I, Canning II, Jaynagar II, Mathurapur I, Mathurapur II and Sagar CD blocks (all in South 24 Parganas district in 2016) had been fully or substantially cleared of forests. Thereafter, much of the interiors of Kakdwip, Patharpratima, Basanti, Kultali and Gosaba CD blocks were cleared for human settlement. People started moving into the area. The refugees from erstwhile East Pakistan were the last to come in large numbers between 1951 and 1971. Canning I, Canning II, Jaynagar II, Mathurapur I, Mathurapur II, Kakdwip and Namkhana CD blocks are a little away from the forests and being attached/ connected to the mainland. Their conditions are similar to other mainland CD blocks in the district, but Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali, Patharpratima and Sagar CD blocks are largely isolated from the mainland. These islands are mostly separated from the deep forest by a river.
Electric connections are rare, and transport and communications, other than river transport, are not there. Around 95% people depend on rain-fed agriculture. Sagar CD block lies at the mouth of the Hooghly River, which carries fresh water and so things are a little different there. The sea level, around India, is estimated to be rising at 2.55 mm per year. In the last 70 years, 220 km2 of forest land has been submerged and the process continues.
Jaynagar II CD block has 42 km of embankments. Embankments raised along rivers are of critical importance for the safety of lives and protection of crops, against daily tides and tidal surges.
As per the 2011 Census of India, Jaynagar II CD block had a total population of 252,164, of which 239,784 were rural and 12,380 were urban. There were 128,858 (51%) males and 123,306 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 38,872. Scheduled Castes numbered 85,587 (33.94%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 1,046 (0.41%).
As per the 2001 Census of India, Jaynagar II CD block had a total population of 209,136, out of which 108,059 were males and 101,077 were females. Jaynagar II CD block registered a population growth of 17.93 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled Castes at 78,652 formed over one-third the population. Scheduled Tribes numbered 3,407.
Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Jaynagar II CD block (2011 census figures in brackets): Kalinagar (6,600), Bijaynagar (6,274), Khaiyamara (10,804), Mayahauri (19,604), Gordoani (20,984), Mallar Chak (4,928), Jautia (5,749), Baishata (6,245), Pat Pukur (5,290), Purba Raghunathpur (4,575), Beladurganagar (6,106), Rupnagar (8,561), Taranagar (4,340), Karibaria (4,971), Manirtala (17,711), Radhaballabhpur (14,884), Nalgora (10,373), Sonatikri (15,536), Bhubankhali (6,949) and Chuprijhara (11,738).
As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Jaynagar II CD block was 148,676 (69.71% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 84,612 (77.48% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 64,064 (61.55% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 15.94%.
As per 2001 Census of India, Jaynagar II CD block had a total literacy of 59.23 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 72.08 per cent female literacy was 45.35 per cent. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy of 69.45 per cent, male literacy being 79.19 per cent and female literacy being 59.01 per cent.
|Literacy in CD Blocks of|
South 24 Parganas district
|Alipore Sadar subdivision|
|Bishnupur I – 78.33%|
|Bishnupur II – 81.37%|
|Budge Budge I – 80.57%|
|Budge Budge II – 79.13%|
|Thakurpukur Maheshtala – 83.54%|
|Baruipur – 76.46%|
|Bhangar I – 72.06%|
|Bhangar II – 74.49%|
|Jaynagar I – 73.17%|
|Jaynagar II – 69.71%|
|Kultali – 69.37%|
|Sonarpur – 79.70%|
|Basanti – 68.32%|
|Canning I – 70.76%|
|Canning II – 66.51%|
|Gosaba – 78.98%|
|Diamond Harbour subdivision|
|Diamond Harbour I – 75.72%|
|Diamond Harbour II – 76.91%|
|Falta – 77.17%|
|Kulpi – 75.49%|
|Magrahat I – 73.82%|
|Magrahat II – 77.41%|
|Mandirbazar – 75.89%|
|Mathurapur I – 73.93%|
|Mathurapur II – 77.77%|
|Kakdwip – 77.93%|
|Namkhana – 85.72|
|Patharpratima – 82.11%|
|Sagar – 84.21%|
|Source: 2011 Census: CD Block Wise|
Primary Census Abstract Data
In the 2001 census, Bengali was the mother tongue for 97.9% of the population of the district, followed by Hindi with 1.5%, Urdu 0.3%, Odia and Telugu (0.1% each).
The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2012, included Hindi, Santhali, Odiya and Punjabi as official languages if it is spoken by a population exceeding 10 per cent of the whole in a particular block or sub-division or a district. Subsequently, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali were also included in the list of minority languages by the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2018.However, as of 2019, there is no official / other reliable information about the areas covered.
In the 2011 Census of India, Muslims numbered 131,704 and formed 52.23% of the population in Jaynagar II CD block. Hindus numbered 118,591 and formed 47.03% of the population. Others numbered 1,869 and formed 0.74% of the population. Amongst the others, Christians numbered 1,381.
The proportion of Hindus in South Twenty-four Parganas district has declined from 76.0% in 1961 to 63.2% in 2011. The proportion of Muslims in South Twenty-four Parganas district has increased from 23.4% to 35.6% during the same period. Christians formed 0.8% in 2011.
As per the Human Development Report for South 24 Parganas district, published in 2009, in Jaynagar II CD block the percentage of households below poverty line was 42.60%. The poverty rates were very high in the Sundarban region with all thirteen CD blocks registering poverty ratios above 30% and eight CD blocks had more than 40% of the population in the BPL category. The Sundarban region remains the most backward region in terms of quality of life. As per rural household survey in 2005, the proportion of households in South 24 Parganas with poverty rates below poverty line was 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios.
In Jaynagar II CD block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 14,804 and formed 15.88%, agricultural labourers numbered 33,952 and formed 36.41%, household industry workers numbered 12,219 and formed 13.10% and other workers numbered 24,467 and formed 34.60%.Total workers numbered 93,240 and formed 36.98% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 158,924 and formed 63.02% of the population.
The District Human Development Report points out that in the blocks of region situated in the close proximity of the Kolkata metropolis, overwhelming majority are involved in the non-agricultural sector for their livelihood. On the other hand, in the Sundarban region, overwhelming majority are dependent on agriculture. In the intermediate region, there is again predominance of the non-agricultural sector. Though the region is not very close to Kolkata, many places are well connected and some industrial/ economic development has taken place.
Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person's land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.
There are 47 inhabited villages in Jaynagar II CD block, as per the District Census Handbook, South Twenty-four Parganas, 2011. 100% villages have power supply. 47 villages (100%) have drinking water supply. 20 villages (42.55%) have post offices. 45 villages (95.74%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 8 villages (17.02%) have pucca (paved) approach roads and 15 villages (31.91%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 1 village (2.13%) has an agricultural credit society and 5 villages (10.64%) have banks.
According to the District Human Development Report, agriculture is an important source of livelihood in South Twentyfour Parganas district. The amount of cultivable land per agricultural worker is only 0.41 hectare in the district. Moreover, the irrigation facilities have not been extended to a satisfactory scale. Agriculture mostly remains a mono-cropped activity.
As per the District Census Handbook, the saline soil of the district is unfit for cultivation, but the non-salty lands are very fertile. While rice is the main food crop, jute is the main cash crop.
In 2013–14, Jaynagar II CD block produced 27,359 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 13,254 hectares, 461 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 148 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.
In Jaynagar II CD block, in 2013-14, 16.59 hectares were irrigated by deep tube well.
Poor irrigation and high soil salinity results in the mono-cropping pattern of cultivation in a major portion of the South 24 Parganas district. As a result of its closeness to the Bay of Bengal, the river waters are mostly saline and are unsuitable for irrigation. Added to the rather gloomy irrigation scenario is the problem of frequent floods.
In Jaynagar II CD block, in 2013-14, net area under effective pisciculture was 1,885 hectares, engaging 31,645 persons in the profession, and with an approximate annual production of 67,827 quintals.
Pisciculture is an important source of employment in South 24 Parganas district. As of 2001, more than 4.5 lakh people were engaged in Pisciculture. Out of this 2.57 lakhs were from the 13 blocks in the Sundarbans.
South 24 Parganas district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.
Jaynagar II CD block has 1 ferry service and 2 originating/ terminating bus routes.
In 2013-14, Jaynagar II CD block had 113 primary schools with 19,970 students, 5 middle schools with 920 students, 7 high schools with 2,603 students and 11 higher secondary schools with 14,447 students. Jaynagar II CD block had 445 institutions for special and non-formal education with 20,436 students.
See also – Education in India
As per the 2011 census, in Jaynagar II CD block, amongst the 47 inhabited villages, 3 villages did not have a school, 27 villages had two or more primary schools, 19 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 13 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.
In 2014, Jaynagar II CD block had 1 rural hospital, 3 primary health centres and 1 NGO/ private nursing home with total 57 beds and 9 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 47 family welfare subcentres. 5,075 patients were treated indoor and 176,634 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD block.
As per 2011 census, in Jaynagar II CD block, 3 villages had primary health centres, 16 villages had primary health subcentres, 1 village had a maternity and child welfare centre, 10 villages had medicine shops and out of the 47 inhabited villages 17 villages had no medical facilities.