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Jacinda Ardern

The Right Honourable
Jacinda Ardern
MP
Jacinda Ardern, 2018.jpg
40th Prime Minister of New Zealand
Assumed office
26 October 2017
MonarchElizabeth II
Governor-GeneralPatsy Reddy
DeputyWinston Peters
Preceded byBill English
36th Leader of the Opposition
In office
1 August 2017 – 26 October 2017
DeputyKelvin Davis
Preceded byAndrew Little
Succeeded byBill English
17th Leader of the Labour Party
Assumed office
1 August 2017
DeputyKelvin Davis
Preceded byAndrew Little
Deputy Leader of the Opposition
In office
7 March 2017 – 1 August 2017
LeaderAndrew Little
Preceded byAnnette King
Succeeded byKelvin Davis
17th Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
In office
1 March 2017 – 1 August 2017
LeaderAndrew Little
Preceded byAnnette King
Succeeded byKelvin Davis
Member of the New Zealand Parliament
for Mount Albert
Assumed office
8 March 2017
Preceded byDavid Shearer
Majority15,264
Member of the New Zealand Parliament
for the Labour Party List
In office
8 November 2008 – 8 March 2017
Succeeded byRaymond Huo
Personal details
Pronunciation/əˈsɪndə ˈɑːrdɜːrn/
BornJacinda Kate Laurell Ardern
(1980-07-26) 26 July 1980 (age 38)
Hamilton, New Zealand
Political partyLabour Party
Domestic partnerClarke Gayford
Children1
ParentsRoss Ardern
Laurell Ardern
RelativesIan S. Ardern (uncle)
ResidencePremier House, Wellington
Alma materUniversity of Waikato
Websitejacinda.co.nz

Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern[1] (/əˈsɪndə ˈɑːrdɜːrn/;[2] born 26 July 1980) is a New Zealand politician serving as the 40th and current Prime Minister of New Zealand since 26 October 2017. She has also served as the Leader of the Labour Party since 1 August 2017. Ardern has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for the Mount Albert electorate since 8 March 2017; she was first elected to the House of Representatives as a list MP at the 2008 general election.[3]

After graduating from the University of Waikato in 2001, Ardern began her career working as a researcher in the office of Prime Minister Helen Clark. She later worked in the United Kingdom as a policy advisor to British Prime Minister Tony Blair.[4] In 2008, she was elected President of the International Union of Socialist Youth.[5]

Ardern became a list MP in 2008, a position she held for almost ten years until her election to the Mount Albert electorate in the 2017 by-election, held on 25 February. She was unanimously elected as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party on 1 March 2017, following the resignation of Annette King. Ardern became Leader of the Labour Party on 1 August 2017, after Andrew Little resigned from the position following a historically low poll result for the party.[6] In the general election of 23 September 2017, the Labour Party won 46 seats (a net gain of 14), putting it behind the National Party, led by Bill English, which won 56 seats.[7] After negotiations with National and Labour, the New Zealand First party chose to enter into a minority coalition government with Labour, supported by the Greens, with Ardern as Prime Minister.[8]

Ideologically, Ardern describes herself as both a social democrat and a progressive.[9][10] She is the world's youngest female head of government, having taken office at age 37.[11] Giving birth to a daughter on 21 June 2018, Ardern became the world's second elected head of government to give birth while in office.[12]

Early life and education

Born in Hamilton, New Zealand,[13] Ardern grew up in Morrinsville and Murupara, where her father, Ross Ardern, worked as a police officer,[14] and her mother, Laurell Ardern, worked as a school catering assistant.[15] She studied at Morrinsville College,[16] where she was the student representative on the school's Board of Trustees.[17] She then attended the University of Waikato, graduating in 2001 with a Bachelor of Communication Studies (BCS) in politics and public relations.[18]

Ardern was brought into politics by her aunt, Marie Ardern, a longstanding member of the Labour Party, who recruited the teenaged Ardern to help her with campaigning for New Plymouth MP Harry Duynhoven during his re-election campaign at the 1999 general election.[19]

Ardern joined the Labour Party at a young age, and became a senior figure in the Young Labour sector of the party. After graduating from university, she spent time working in the offices of Phil Goff and of Helen Clark as a researcher. After a period of time volunteering at a soup kitchen in New York City,[20] Ardern moved to London to work as a senior policy adviser in an 80-person policy unit of then-British Prime Minister Tony Blair.[4] (She never met Blair in London, but did question him about the invasion of Iraq at an event in New Zealand in 2011.[21]) Ardern was also seconded to the Home Office to help with a review of policing in England and Wales.[18]

In early 2008, Ardern was elected as the President of the International Union of Socialist Youth,[5] a role which saw her spend time in several countries, including Jordan, Israel, Algeria and China.[18]

Political career

Member of Parliament

New Zealand Parliament
Years Term Electorate List Party
2008–11 49th List 20 Labour
2011–14 50th List 13 Labour
2014–17 51st List 5 Labour
2017 51st Mount Albert Labour
2017–present 52nd Mount Albert 1 Labour

Ahead of the 2008 election, Ardern was ranked 20th on Labour's party list. This was a very high placement for someone who was not already a sitting MP, and virtually assured her of a seat in Parliament. Accordingly, Ardern returned from London to campaign full-time.[22] She also became Labour's candidate for the safe National electorate of Waikato. Ardern was unsuccessful in the electorate vote, but her high placement on Labour's party list allowed her to enter Parliament as a list MP.[23] Upon election, she became the youngest sitting MP in Parliament, succeeding fellow Labour MP Darren Hughes, and remained the youngest MP until the election of Gareth Hughes on 11 February 2010.[24]

Ardern, with Phil Goff and Carol Beaumont, at an anti-mining march on 1 May 2010

Opposition leader Phil Goff promoted Ardern to the front bench, naming her Labour's spokesperson for Youth Affairs and as associate spokesperson for Justice (Youth Affairs).[25]

She has made regular appearances on TVNZ's Breakfast programme as part of the "Young Guns" feature, in which she appeared alongside National MP (and future National leader) Simon Bridges.[26]

Ardern contested the seat of Auckland Central for Labour in the 2011 general election, standing against incumbent National MP Nikki Kaye for National and Greens candidate Denise Roche. Despite targeting Green voters to vote strategically for her, she lost to Kaye by 717 votes. However, she returned to Parliament via the party list, on which she was ranked 13th.[27] She maintained an office within the electorate while a listed MP based in Auckland Central.

After Goff resigned from the Party leadership following his defeat at the 2011 election, Ardern supported David Shearer over David Cunliffe. She was elevated to the fourth-ranking position in the Shadow Cabinet on 19 December 2011, becoming a spokesperson for social development under new leader David Shearer.[25]

Ardern stood again in Auckland Central at the 2014 general election. She again finished second though increased her own vote and reduced Kaye's majority from 717 to 600.[28] Ranked 5th on Labour's list Ardern was still returned to Parliament where she became Shadow spokesperson for Justice, Children, Small Business, and Arts & Culture under new leader Andrew Little.[29]

Mount Albert by-election

Ardern put forward her name for the Labour nomination for the Mount Albert by-election to be held in February 2017[30] following the resignation of former Labour leader David Shearer on 8 December 2016. When nominations for the Labour Party closed on 12 January 2017, Ardern was the only nominee and was selected unopposed. On 21 January, Ardern participated in the 2017 Women's March, a worldwide protest in opposition to Donald Trump, the newly inaugurated President of the United States.[31] She was confirmed as Labour's candidate at a meeting on 22 January.[32][33] Ardern won a landslide victory, gaining 77 percent of votes cast in the preliminary results.[34][35]

Deputy leader of the Labour Party

Following her win in the by-election, Ardern was unanimously elected as deputy leader of the Labour Party on 7 March 2017, following the resignation of Annette King who was intending to retire at the next election.[36] Ardern's vacant list seat was taken by Raymond Huo.[37]

Leader of the Opposition

Ardern speaking into a megaphone
Ardern campaigning at the University of Auckland in 2017

On 1 August 2017, just seven weeks before the 2017 general election, she assumed the office of leader of the opposition and leader of the New Zealand Labour Party following the resignation of Andrew Little. Little stood down due to the party's historically low polling.[38] Ardern was unanimously confirmed in an election to choose a new leader at a caucus meeting the same day.[39] At 37, Ardern became the youngest leader of the Labour Party in its history.[40] She is also the second female leader of the party after Helen Clark.[41] According to Ardern, Little had previously approached her on 26 July and said he thought she should take over as Labour leader then as he was of the opinion he couldn't turn things around for the party, although Ardern declined and told him to "stick it out".[42]

At her first press conference following her election as leader, she said that the forthcoming election campaign would be one of "relentless positivity".[43] Immediately following her appointment, the party was inundated with donations by the public, reaching NZ$700 per minute at its peak.[44] Ardern's election was followed by a spate of positive coverage from many sections of the media, including international outlets such as CNN,[45] with commentators referring to a 'Jacinda effect' and 'Jacindamania'.[46][47]

After Ardern's ascension to the leadership Labour rose dramatically in opinion polls. By late August they had risen to 43 percent in the Colmar Brunton poll (having been 24 percent under Little's leadership) as well as managing to overtake National in opinion polls for the first time in over a decade.[42] In mid-August 2017, Ardern stated that a Labour government would establish a tax working group to explore the possibility of introducing a capital gains tax but ruled out taxing family homes.[48][49] In response to negative publicity, Ardern abandoned plans to introduce a capital gains tax during the first term of a Labour government.[50][51] Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson later clarified that Labour would not introduce new taxes until after the 2020 election. The policy shift accompanied strident allegations by the Minister of Finance Steven Joyce that Labour had a $11.7 billion "hole" in its tax policy.[52][53]

The Labour and Green parties' proposed water and pollution taxes also generated criticism from farmers. On 18 September, the farming lobby group Federated Farmers staged a protest against the taxes in Ardern's hometown of Morrinsville. New Zealand First leader Winston Peters attended the protest to campaign, but was jeered at by the farmers because they suspected he was also in favour of the taxes. During the protest, one farmer displayed a sign calling Ardern a "pretty Communist". This was criticised as misogynistic by former Prime Minister Helen Clark.[54][55] During the campaign trail, Ardern expressed her support for decriminalising abortion by removing it from the 1961 Crimes Act.[56] In September, Ardern said she wanted New Zealand to have a debate on removing the monarch of New Zealand as its head of state.[57]

2017 election results

Preliminary results from the general election indicated that the party got a more modest 35.79% of the vote to National's 46.03%. Labour gained 14 seats, increasing its parliamentary representation to 45 seats. This was the best result for Labour since losing power in 2008.[58][59] Following the elections, Ardern and deputy leader Kelvin Davis entered into negotiations with the Greens and New Zealand First parties to explore forming a coalition since the rival National Party lacked sufficient seats to govern alone. Under the country's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, New Zealand First held the balance of power, and was, therefore, able to choose the party that would lead a coalition government.[60][61] Following the release of special including overseas voting results on 7 October, Labour gained an extra seat, raising its presence in a parliament to 46 seats.[7] Ardern welcomed the results and remarked that they would give Labour an advantage in negotiations to form the next government.[62]

Prime Minister

Ardern with Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters and Governor-General Dame Patsy Reddy at the swearing-in of the Cabinet on 26 October 2017

On 19 October 2017, New Zealand First leader Winston Peters agreed to form a coalition with Labour,[8] making Ardern the next Prime Minister.[63][64] This coalition will receive confidence and supply from the Green Party.[65] Ardern named Peters as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. She also gave New Zealand First five ministerial posts in her government, with Peters and three other ministers serving in Cabinet.[66][67]

On 20 October, Ardern confirmed that she would hold the ministerial portfolios of National Security and Intelligence, Arts, Culture and Heritage, and Vulnerable Children, reflecting the shadow positions she held as Leader of the Opposition.[68] However, as of 25 October 2017 her position as Minister for Vulnerable Children had been replaced with the role of Minister for Child Poverty Reduction, and New Zealand First MP Tracey Martin took on the role of Minister for Children.[69] She was officially sworn in by Governor-General Dame Patsy Reddy on 26 October, alongside her Cabinet.[70] Upon taking office, Ardern said that her government would be "focused, empathetic and strong".[71]

Ardern is New Zealand's third female prime minister after Jenny Shipley (1997–1999) and Helen Clark (1999–2008).[72][73] She is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders.[74] Entering office aged 37, Ardern is also the youngest individual to become New Zealand's head of government since Edward Stafford, who became premier in 1856.[75]

On 5 November 2017, Ardern made her first official overseas trip to Australia, where she met Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull for the first time. Relations between the two countries had been strained in the preceding months because of Australia's treatment of New Zealanders living in the country, and shortly before taking office, Ardern had spoken of the need to rectify this situation, and to develop a better working relationship with the Australian government.[76] Turnbull described the meeting in cordial terms: "we trust each other...The fact we are from different political traditions is irrelevant".[77] Ardern flew to Vietnam on 9 November for her first visit to an APEC summit.[78]

On 19 January 2018, Ardern announced that she was pregnant and that Winston Peters would take the role of Acting Prime Minister for six weeks after the birth.[79] Following the birth of a daughter, she took her maternity leave from 21 June to 2 August 2018.[80][81][82]

On 2 February, Ardern travelled to Waitangi for the annual Waitangi Day commemoration; she stayed in Waitangi for five days, an unprecedented length.[83] Ardern became the first female Prime Minister to speak from the top marae. Her visit was largely well-received by Māori leaders, with commentators noting a sharp contrast with the acrimonious responses received by several of her predecessors.[83][84]

On 20 April, Ardern attended the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018 in London, where she was selected to deliver a toast to the Commonwealth at a state banquet of world leaders. She also had her first private audience with the Queen.[85]

On 5 September 2018, Ardern travelled to Nauru, where she attended the Pacific Islands Forum. Media and political opponents criticised her decision to travel separately from the rest of her contingent so that she could spend more time with her daughter. Critics charged that the additional flight would cost taxpayers up to NZ$100,000.[86] Ardern had earlier rebuffed suggestions that she should not attend the Forum, citing tradition; she would have been the first New Zealand prime minister since 1971 to not attend the Forum outside an election cycle.[87] She was later criticised for not meeting refugees in Nauru.[88]

On 24 September, Ardern became the first female head of government to attend the United Nations General Assembly meeting with her infant present.[89][90] Her address to the General Assembly on 27 September praised the United Nations for its multilateralism, expressed support for the world's youth, and called for immediate attention to the effects and causes of climate change, for the equality of women, and for kindness as the basis for action.[91]

Political views

Ardern speaking at a Labour Party event in 2016

Ardern has described herself as a social democrat,[9] a progressive,[10] a republican[57] and a feminist,[92] citing Helen Clark as a political hero,[93] and has called capitalism a "blatant failure" due to the extent of homelessness in New Zealand.[94] She advocates a lower rate of immigration, suggesting a drop of around 20,000–30,000. Calling it an "infrastructure issue", she argues, "there hasn't been enough planning about population growth, we haven't necessarily targeted our skill shortages properly".[95] However, she wants to increase the intake of refugees.[96]

Ardern believes the retention or abolition of Māori electorates should be decided by Māori, stating, "[Māori] have not raised the need for those seats to go, so why would we ask the question?"[97] She supports compulsory teaching of the Māori language in schools.[9]

On social issues, Ardern voted in favour of same-sex marriage[98] and believes abortion should be removed from the Crimes Act.[99] She is opposed to criminalising people who use cannabis and has pledged to hold a referendum on whether or not to legalise cannabis in her first term as prime minister.[100][101] In 2018, she became the first prime minister of New Zealand to march in a gay pride parade.[102]

Referring to New Zealand's nuclear-free policy, she described taking action on climate change as "my generation's nuclear-free moment".[103]

Personal life

Ardern with her partner, Clarke Gayford (left), 2018

Raised a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon), Ardern left the church in 2005 because, she said, it conflicted with her personal views; in particular her support for gay rights.[104] In January 2017, Ardern identified as "agnostic".[104]

Ardern's partner is television presenter Clarke Gayford.[105][106] The couple first met in 2012 when they were introduced by mutual friend Colin Mathura-Jeffree, a New Zealand television host and model,[107] but they didn't spend time together until Gayford contacted Ardern regarding a controversial Government Communications Security Bureau bill.[108] They had a ginger-and-white polydactyl cat named Paddles, which became a celebrity as the "First Cat" after Ardern took office; even having a Twitter account established in her name. Paddles died in early November 2017 after being hit by a car in the Auckland suburb of Point Chevalier.[109][110][111]

On 19 January 2018, Ardern revealed that she was expecting her first child in June, making her New Zealand's first Prime Minister to be pregnant whilst in office.[112] Ardern was admitted to Auckland City Hospital[113] on 21 June 2018, and gave birth to a girl at 4:45 pm (04:45 UTC) that day,[114][115] becoming only the second-elected head of government to give birth while in office (after Benazir Bhutto in 1990).[12][116] On 24 June, Ardern revealed her daughter's first name as Neve Te Aroha.[117] Neve is an anglicised form of the Irish name Niamh, meaning "bright"; Aroha is Māori for "love", and Te Aroha is a mountain in the Kaimai Range, near Ardern's home town of Morrinsville.[118]

See also

References

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External links

New Zealand Parliament
Preceded by
David Shearer
Member of Parliament
for Mount Albert

2017–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Darren Hughes
Baby of the House
2008–2010
Succeeded by
Gareth Hughes
Party political offices
Preceded by
Annette King
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
2017
Succeeded by
Kelvin Davis
Preceded by
Andrew Little
Leader of the Labour Party
2017–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Annette King
Deputy Leader of the Opposition
2017
Succeeded by
Kelvin Davis
Preceded by
Andrew Little
Leader of the Opposition
2017
Succeeded by
Bill English
Preceded by
Bill English
Prime Minister of New Zealand
2017–present
Incumbent
Minister of National Security and Intelligence
2017–present
Preceded by
Maggie Barry
Minister for Arts, Culture and Heritage
2017–present