Jōwa (貞和) was a Japanese era or nengō which was promulgated by the more militarily powerful of two Imperial rival courts during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts (南北朝時代 nanbokuchō jidai). This nengō came after Kōei and before Kannō and lasting from October 1345 through February 1350. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇 Kōmyō-tennō). Go-Kōgon's Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇 Go-Murakami-tennō).
The Imperial seats during the Nanboku-chō
period were in relatively close proximity, but geographically distinct. They were conventionally identified as:
During the Meiji period, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911, established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the direct descendants of Emperor Go-Daigo through Emperor Go-Murakami, whose Southern Court (南朝 nanchō) had been established in exile in Yoshino, near Nara.
Until the end of the Edo period, the militarily superior pretender-Emperors supported by the Ashikaga shogunate had been mistakenly incorporated in Imperial chronologies despite the undisputed fact that the Imperial Regalia were not in their possession.
This illegitimate Northern Court (北朝 hokuchō) had been established in Kyoto by Ashikaga Takauji.
Change of era
- 1345, also called Jōwa gannen (貞和元年): The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Kōei 2.
In this time frame, Kōkoku (1340-1346) and Shōhei (1346-1370) were Southern Court equivalent nengō.
Events of the Jōwa era
- ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 278-279; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 294-298; Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric et al. (2005). "Jōwa" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 434; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 294-299; Nussbaum, p. 541.
- ^ a b c Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring modernity: concepts of nature in Japanese political ideology, p. 199 n57, citing Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. pp. 140–147.
- ^ a b Titsingh, p. 297.
- ^ Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: the Tokushi Yoron, p.329.