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Jânio Quadros

His Excellency
Jânio Quadros
Janio Quadros.png
22nd President of Brazil
In office
January 31, 1961 – August 25, 1961
Vice President João Goulart
Preceded by Juscelino Kubitschek
Succeeded by Ranieri Mazzilli
24th and 36th Mayor of São Paulo
In office
January 1, 1986 – January 1, 1989
Preceded by Mário Covas
Succeeded by Luiza Erundina
In office
April 8, 1953 – January 31, 1955
Preceded by Armando de Arruda Pereira
Succeeded by William Salem
Federal Deputy for Paraná
In office
March 15, 1959 – January 31, 1961
18th Governor of São Paulo
In office
January 31, 1955 – January 31, 1959
Vice Governor Erlindo Salzano
Preceded by Lucas Nogueira Garcez
Succeeded by Carvalho Pinto
State Deputy of São Paulo
In office
March 14, 1951 – April 7, 1953
Alderman of São Paulo
In office
May 8, 1947 – March 14, 1951
Personal details
Born Jânio da Silva Quadros
(1917-01-25)January 25, 1917
Campo Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Died February 16, 1992(1992-02-16) (aged 75)
São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Political party
  • PDC (1947–1960)
  • PTN (1960–1961)
  • PMDB (1980)
  • PTB (1980–1986)
  • PSD (1989–1989)
  • PRN (1989–1992)
Spouse(s) Eloá Quadros
Alma mater University of São Paulo
Signature

Jânio da Silva Quadros (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʒɐ̃niu dɐ ˈsiwvɐ ˈkwadɾus] (About this sound listen); January 25, 1917 – February 16, 1992[1]) was a Brazilian politician who served as 22nd President of Brazil from 31 January to 25 August 1961, when he resigned from office. He also served as the 24th and 36th mayor of São Paulo, and the 18th governor of the state of São Paulo. Quadros was known for his populist style of government, honesty, and his eccentric behavior. As president, he focused on economic reform and attempted to root out corruption. He also pursued an independent foreign policy, trying to balance relations between the United States and the Eastern Bloc. Although he was elected by a huge margin, his term was marked by uncertainty and political instability culminating in his resignation. This unexpected move caused national chaos, with the presidency being assumed by João Goulart.

Early life

Quadros was born in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul on January 25th 1917, to Gabriel Quadros and Leonor da Silva Quadros. He attended the University of São Paulo, funding his education by teaching geography and Portuguese, and graduated in 1939 with a degree in Law.[2] He subsequently practiced law and taught at the Dante Alighieri Institute until 1945, when he became involved in politics. [3]

Political career

In 1947, Quadros was elected to the city council of São Paulo, of which he was a member until 1950. He was very active in this role, introducing more legislation than any other member.[4] Quadros ran for mayor of the city of São Paulo in 1953. He defeated the well-funded establishment candidate Francisco Cardoso and served as mayor until 1955.[5] During his time as mayor he gained a reputation for honesty and innovation. He frequently visited the poor neighborhoods of São Paulo and listened to the complaints of the residents, which made him popular with the working class.[6] He also succeeded in balancing the city's budget in under a year, adding to his formidable reputation.[7]

In 1955, Quadros resigned in order to run for governor of the state of São Paulo. He defeated the experienced politician Adhemar de Barros, his longtime rival, by a margin of 1 percent. He served as governor until 1959, when he resigned in order to run for president.[8] Quadros' meteoric career can be attributed to his widespread use of populist rhetoric and his extravagant behavior. He appealed to popular frustration with the government by making his campaign symbol a broom, symbolic of his pledge to "sweep away corruption". He was also a very charismatic leader who proved adept at gaining the trust of the public. [9]

Election of 1960

Prior to the 1960 election, Quadros was nominated by several opposition parties, forming a coalition of his National Labor Party (PTN), the Christian Democratic Party and the largest opposition party, the National Democratic Union (UDN). Although he was not an enthusiastic supporter of the UDN, the party supported his candidacy because they lacked a viable alternative. Throughout the campaign, Quadros' clashed with the UDN. His trip to communist Cuba in March 1960 demonstrated a clear disregard for the party's preferred foreign policy. Despite this, Quadros enjoyed widespread popularity with the Brazilian electorate.[10] The ruling coalition, composed of the PSD and PTB, nominated Henrique Lott, who was Marshal of the Brazilian Army. However, Lott was a flawed candidate, whose stubbornness and bluntness cost him potential supporters. [11] Quadros easily won, and his 15.6 percent margin of victory would be the largest margin for a presidential election held by popular vote until Fernando Henrique Cardoso won by 27 points in 1994. Quadros' share of the popular vote was 48%, larger than any previous president. Despite this success, the separate race for vice president was won by João Goulart, Lott's running mate.[12] The election marked a historic moment in Brazilian history. When Quadros took office on January 31, 1961; it was the first time since Brazil became a republic in 1889 that an incumbent government peacefully transferred power to an elected member of the opposition. It was also the first time in 31 years that the presidency was not held by an heir to the legacy of Getúlio Vargas.

Presidency

Jânio Quadros in 1961

After his victory in the 1960 election, Quadros spent the three months before his inauguration traveling in Europe and refrained from discussing what he would do as president. His absence was criticized by many of his allies, who wanted him to take a more active role in preparing the administration to govern.[13] Quadros took office on January 31, 1961. In his inaugural speech, he emphasized the issues of government inefficiency, inflation, and debt. Quadros laid the blame for the country's high rate of inflation on his predecessor, Juscelino Kubitschek, and also berated the former president for nepotism and corruption. He quickly replaced most incumbent ministers with members of the UDN and other parties that had supported him. However, the Movimento Popular Jânio Quadros was denied influence in the new government despite its support for Quadors and its prominent role in the campaign. Despite his political skills, Quadros' ability to govern effectively was hampered throughout his presidency by his inexperience with party politics and his small staff. [14]

Domestic policy

Quadros speaks during a meeting with state governors, 1961

At the beginning of Quadros presidency, Brazil was faced with high inflation and large debts to foreign countries. His government announced an anti-inflation program in March which simplified exchange rates and cut public spending. These reforms gained the approval of the IMF, allowing Quadros to successfully renegotiate debts with the United States and Europe[15] Brazil received a total of 1.64 billion dollars of new loans, greatly mitigating the debt crisis that it had been facing. This represented a major breakthrough for the Quadros administration, as several previous Brazilian presidents had failed to renegotiate the debt.[16] In addition to his campaign against inflation, Quadros attempted to reduce bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption. He launched an anti-corruption campaign and largely bypassed the bureaucracy by issuing Presidential decrees.[17] Unfortunately, these policies undermined morale within the government and alienated many members of Congress. This was exacerbated by his failure to cooperate with his allies, as he rarely consulted the UDN on important decisions and held only two cabinet meetings in his first month in office. [18] As president, Quadros also dissipated his energy on relatively unimportant issues, exerting significant effort to outlaw gambling and ban women from wearing bikinis on the beach. [19]

Foreign policy

Quadros with Argentine President Arturo Frondizi in April 1961

Quadros pursued an independent foreign policy, outlining "freedom, independence, and non-interference as his guiding principals. He also tried to pursue closer relationships with African countries, hoping to gain influence in the non-aligned movement. He attempted to show solidarity with newly independent African countries by promoting decolonization and opposing racism. He also tried to promote trade and cultural exchanges with these countries. However, Quadros' government often supported states ruled by white minority governments, such as South Africa, which undermined these efforts.[20] Quadros attempted to follow a neutral foreign policy instead of the Pro-American policies of his predecessors, hoping to play the major powers against each other. However, his willingness to embrace the communist governments of Cuba, China and the Soviet Union alienated many of his supporters, particularly the UND. His decision to award the Cruziero do Sol, Brazil's highest medal for foreigners, to Che Guevara was particularly controversial, leading many to suspect that he was a communist sympathizer.[21] Quadros' foreign policy was one of the most controversial aspects of his presidency and was a major factor in the decline of his support in congress.

Resignation

Quadros' resignation letter

In the summer of 1961, Quadros had faced increasing opposition from congress and had alienated many former allies. On August 25, 1961, Quadros unexpectedly resigned, citing foreign and "terrible occult forces" in his cryptic resignation letter. His resignation is commonly thought to have been a move to increase his power, expecting to return to the presidency by the acclamation of the Brazilian people or by the request of the National Congress of Brazil and the military. Based on Goulart's unpopularity with the military and other conservative elements, he likely expected that his resignation would not be accepted.[22] This maneuver, however, was immediately rejected by the Brazilian legislature, which accepted his resignation and called on the president of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil, Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli, to take office until the vice president, João Goulart, could come back from his trip to the People's Republic of China. Quadros' resignation created a serious political crisis, setting the stage for the 1964 coup. The military, which feared Goulart's leftist tendencies, seemed poised to forcibly oppose his inauguration. The United States was also concerned by the prospect of a Goulart presidency, and considered supporting anti-Goulart forces. [23] Goulart finally took the oath as president on September 7, 1961, although his power was restricted by an amendment to the Constitution passed on September 2, that created a parliamentary system of Government. He was not of the same party as Quadros; at the time, Brazilians could vote for a ticket that had candidates for president and vice president from different parties.

Exile and return to politics

Shortly after his resignation, Quadros left the capital and traveled to Europe, promising to return to Brazil. [24]The political crisis initiated by his resignation culminated in a military coup in 1964. While the military did not allow him to participate in politics, by the 1980s Quadros had made a comeback. He joined the Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, and was candidate for governor of São Paulo in 1982, only to be defeated by André Franco Montoro. Nevertheless, he was elected mayor of São Paulo city in 1985, for the second time, defeating the favored candidate, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, later president of Brazil. Quadros served as mayor until 1988.

Personal life

He married Eloa do Valle in 1939. His daughter, Dirce, was a member of the brazilian National Congress.[25]

He died of kidney and lung failure and a hemorrhage on 16 February 1992 at the Albert Einstein Hospital in São Paulo after being hospitalized for 12 days.[26]


See also

References

  1. ^ "Jânio da Silva Quadros" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 29 July 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
  2. ^ [www.nytimes.com]
  3. ^ [library.brown.edu]
  4. ^ Skidmore, Thomas E. “Politics in Brazil, 1930 - 1964.” Apr. 2007, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195332698.001.0001
  5. ^ Skidmore, Thomas E. 1999. Brazil: Five centuries of change. New York: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Fontes, Paulo. 2013. Trabalhadores e associativismo urbano no governo jânio quadros em são paulo (1953-1954). Revista Brasileira De História 33 (66): 71-94.
  7. ^ [www.nytimes.com]
  8. ^ Skidmore, 2007, p.187
  9. ^ [www.nytimes.com]
  10. ^ Skidmore, Thomas E. 2007. Jânio quadros: Agonizing interlude. In , 187-205Oxford University Press.
  11. ^ Maram, Sheldon. 1992. Juscelino kubitschek and the 1960 presidential election. Journal of Latin American Studies 24 (1): 123-45.
  12. ^ Skidmore, 2007, p. 193
  13. ^ Skidmore, 2007, p.193
  14. ^ Skidmore, 2007, p. 199
  15. ^ Skidmore, 2007, pp. 194-195
  16. ^ Loureiro, FP. 2014. The alliance for or against progress? US-brazilian financial relations in the early 1960s. Journal of Latin American Studies 46 (2): 323-51.
  17. ^ Skidmore, 2007, p.197
  18. ^ Skidmore, 2007, p. 198
  19. ^ Skidmore, 2007, p.197
  20. ^ Aragon, Daniel P. 2010. Chancellery sepulchers: Jânio quadros, joão goulart and the forging of brazilian foreign policy in angola, mozambique, and south africa, 1961-1964. Luso-Brazilian Review 47 (1): 121-49.
  21. ^ Skidmore, Thomas E. 1999. Brazil: Five centuries of change. New York: Oxford University Press.
  22. ^ Skidmore, Thomas E. 2007. Jânio quadros: Agonizing interlude. In . New York: Oxford University Press.
  23. ^ Loureiro, FP. 2014. The alliance for or against progress? US-brazilian financial relations in the early 1960s. Journal of Latin American Studies 46 (2): 323-51.
  24. ^ Skidmore, Thomas E. 1999. Brazil: Five centuries of change. New York: Oxford University Press.
  25. ^ "JANIO QUADROS, EX-PRESIDENT OF BRAZIL, DIES". The Washington Post. 18 February 1992. 
  26. ^ "Janio Quadros; Brazil Leader". Los Angeles Times. 18 February 1992. 

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Armando de Arruda Pereira
Mayor of São Paulo
1953–1955
Succeeded by
William Salem
Preceded by
Lucas Nogueira Garcez
Governor of São Paulo
1955–1959
Succeeded by
Carvalho Pinto
Preceded by
Juscelino Kubitschek
22nd President of Brazil
1961
Succeeded by
Ranieri Mazzilli
Preceded by
Mário Covas
Mayor of São Paulo
1986–1989
Succeeded by
Luiza Erundina