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Italian Navy

Italian Navy
Marina Militare
Coat of arms of Marina Militare.svg
Active 1946–present
(1861 as Regia Marina)
Country Italy
Type Navy
Size 30,923 personnel
184 vessels (incl. minor auxiliaries)
70 aircraft[1]
Motto(s) Italian: Patria e Onore
"Country and Honour"
March La Ritirata ("Ritirata" in Italian means the return of soldiers to their barrack, or in this case of sailors to their ship after a leave) by Tommaso Mario
Anniversaries June 10 – Sinking of the Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS Szent István by Luigi Rizzo
Decorations 1 Cavalier Cross of the Military Order of Savoy
3 Cavalier's Crosses of the Military Order of Italy
2 Gold Medals of Military Valor
1 Silver Medal of Military Valor
1 Gold Medal for Merited Public Honor
Commanders
capo di stato maggiore della marina
(Chief of Staff of the Italian Navy)
ammiraglio di squadra
Valter Girardelli
sottocapo di stato maggiore della marina
Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
ammiraglio di squadra
Claudio Gaudiosi
Insignia
Naval Aviation roundels LV Italian Air Force roundel.svgRoundel of Italy (Naval Aviation).svg
Naval Ensign Naval Ensign of Italy.svg
Jack Naval Jack of Italy.svg

The Italian Navy (Italian: Marina Militare, lit. "Military Navy"; abbreviated as MM) is the maritime defence force of the Italian Republic. It is one of the four branches of Italian Armed Forces and was formed in 1946 from what remained of the Regia Marina (Royal Navy) after World War II. As of August 2014, the Italian Navy had a strength of 30,923 active personnel with approximately 184 vessels in service, including minor auxiliary vessels.[2]

History

Before and during World War II

The Regia Marina was formed on March 17, 1861, after the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. The Italian Navy assumed its present name after the Italian monarchy was abolished following a popular referendum held on June 2, 1946.

After World War II

At the end of its five years involvement in World War II, Italy was a devastated nation. After the end of hostilities the Regia Marina, which at the beginning of the war was the fourth largest navy in the world with a mix of modernised and new battleships, started a long and complex rebuilding process. The important combat contributions of the Italian naval forces after the signing of the armistice with the Allies on September 8, 1943, and the subsequent cooperation agreement on September 23, 1943, left the Regia Marina in a poor condition, with much of its infrastructure and bases unusable and its ports mined and blocked by sunken ships. However, a large number of its naval units had survived the war, albeit in a low efficiency state, which was due to the conflict and the age of many vessels. The vessels that remained were:

  • 5 battleships
  • 10 cruisers
  • 10 destroyers
  • 20 frigates
  • 20 corvettes
  • 50 fast coastal patrol units
  • 50 minesweepers
  • 19 amphibious operations vessels
  • 5 school ships
  • 1 support ship and plane transport
  • various submarine units[citation needed]

The peace treaty

The peace treaty signed on February 10, 1947 in Paris was onerous for Regia Marina. Apart from territorial and material losses, also the following restrictions were imposed:

  • A ban on owning, building or experimenting with atomic weapons, self-propulsion projectiles or relative launchers, etc.
  • A ban on owning Battleships, Aircraft carriers, Submarines and Amphibious Assault units.
  • A ban on operating military installations on the islands of Pantelleria, Pianosa and on the archipelago of Pelagie Islands.
La Spezia, 1951: carrier Aquila just before being scrapped

The treaty also ordered Italy to put the following ships at the disposals of the victorious nations United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, Greece, Yugoslavia and Albania as war compensation:

  • 3 Battleships: Giulio Cesare, Italia, Vittorio Veneto;
  • 5 Cruisers: Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta, Attilio Regolo, Scipione Africano, Eugenio di Savoia and Eritrea;
  • 7 Destroyers, 5 of the Soldati class and Augusto Riboty and Alfredo Oriani;
  • 6 Minesweepers: like Aliseo and Fortunale;
  • 8 Submarines: 3 of the Acciaio class;
  • 1 Sailing School ship: Cristoforo Colombo.

The total displacement, battleships excluded, of the future navy was not allowed to be greater than 67,500 tons, while the staff was capped at 25,000 men.[citation needed]

The entry into NATO

Great changes in the international political situation, which were developing into the Cold War, convinced the United Kingdom and United States to discontinue the transfer of Italy's capital ships as war reparations. Some had already been dismantled in La Spezia between 1948 and 1955, including the flagship aircraft carrier Aquila. However, the Soviet Union demanded the surrender of the battleship Giulio Cesare and other naval units designated for transfer. The cruisers Attilio Regolo and Scipione Africano became the French Chateaurenault and Guichen, while Eugenio di Savoia became the Greek Helli. After break up and/or transfers, only a small part of the fleet remained to be recommissioned into the Marina. As Western attention turned to the Soviets and the Mediterranean Sea, Italian seas became one of the main sites of confrontation between the two superpowers, contributing to the re-emergence of Italy's naval importance thanks to her strategic geographical position.

With the new elections in 1946, the Kingdom of Italy became a Republic, and the Regia Marina took the name of Marina Militare (Military Navy). As the Marshall Plan began to rebuild Italy and Europe was rapidly being divided into two geopolitically antagonistic blocs, Italy began talks with the United States to guarantee adequate security considerations. The US government in Washington wished to keep its own installations on the Italian Peninsula and relaxed the Treaty restrictions by including Italy in the Mutual Defense Assistance Programme (MDAP). On April 4, 1949, Italy joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and, in order for the navy to contribute actively in the organization, the Treaty restrictions were definitively repealed by the end of 1951, with the consent of all of Western nations.

The carrier Cavour in the Gulf of Oman, 2013

Within NATO, the Italian Navy was assigned combat control of the Adriatic Sea and Strait of Otranto, as well as the defence of the naval routes through the Tyrrhenian Sea. To ensure these tasks a "Studio sul potenziamento della Marina italiana in relazione al Patto Atlantico" (Study about the development of the Italian Navy with reference to the Atlantic Pact) was undertaken, which researched the structures and the methods for the development of the navy. This solution required a great economic effort to rebuild and transform the fleet; it also required aid from the United States to reach the necessary standards. Progress was slow due to economic pressures on Italy (because of the tremendous resources needed for post-war rebuilding of Italy and its military-industrial complex) and due to opposition from other European governments. These nations were concerned at seeing an Italian Navy capable of rivaling the Western naval forces, so they imposed political obstacles to slow Italian naval development.[citation needed]

Naval ensign

Naval ensign of Italy

The ensign of the Italian Navy is the Italian tricolour defaced with the coat of arms of the Marina Militare. The quarters refer to the four Medieval Italian Thalassocracies, or "Maritime Republics" (Italian: Repubbliche Marinare):

The shield has a golden crown, that distinguishes military vessels from merchant: the crown, "corona rostrata", was proposed in 1939 by Admiral Domenico Cavagnari to the Government, as an acknowledgement of the Italian Navy's origin in Roman times. In the proposal, Adm. Cavagnari wrote that "in order to recall the common origin [of the Navy] from the Roman sailorship, the Insignia will be surmounted by the towered Crown with rostra, the emblem of honour and valour the Roman Senate awarded to the leaders of naval victories, conquerors of lands and cities across the seas".

A further difference is that St. Mark's lion, symbolising the Republic of Venice, does not hold the gospel in its paw (as it does on the civil ensign, where the book is open at the words "Pax tibi Marce, evangelista meus", meaning "Peace to you Mark, my Evangelist") and is wielding a sword instead: such an image is consistent with the pictorial tradition from Venetian history, in which the book is shown open during peacetime and closed during wartime.

Structure and organisation

Organization

In 2012 the Navy began a restructuring process that will see a 21% decrease in personnel by 2025. A new structure was implemented in January 2014.[3] The command structure is depicted below:[4]

Reporting to the Logistics Command is Maritime Command – divided into four areas who provide logistic support for their areas.[3]

Italian Navy org chart 2016.jpg

Position Italian title Rank Incumbent
Navy Chief of Staff Capo di Stato Maggiore della Marina Ammiraglio di squadra Valter Girardelli
Navy Deputy Chief of Staff Sottocapo di Stato Maggiore della Marina Ammiraglio di squadra Maurizio Gimignani
Commander in Chief Naval Fleet (CINCNAV) Comandante in Capo della Squadra Navale Ammiraglio di squadra Donato Marzano
Commander in Chief Logistics Command (MARICOMLOG) Comandante Logistico Ammiraglio di squadra Raffaele Caruso[5]
Commander in Chief Schools Command (MARICOMSCUOLE) Comandante Scuole Ammiraglio di squadra Salvatore Ruzittu[6]
Commander Maritime Command North Comandante del Comando Marittimo Nord L'ammiraglio di divisione Giorgio Lazio[7]
Commander Maritime Command South Comandante del Comando Marittimo Sud L'ammiraglio di divisione Eduardo Serra[8][9]
Commander Maritime Command Sicily Comandante del Comando Marittimo Sicilia L'ammiraglio di divisione Nicola De Felice[10]
Commander Maritime Command Sardinia Comando Supporto Logistico della Marina a Cagliari Contrammiraglio Francesco Sollitto[11][12]
COMSUBIN Comandante di Comsubin Contrammiraglio Paolo Pezzuti

Coast Guard

The Corps of the Port Captaincies – Coast Guard (Italian language: Corpo delle Capitanerie di porto – Guardia costiera') is the coast guard of Italy and is part of the Italian Navy under the control of the Ministry of Infrastructures and Transports. In Italy, it is commonly known as simply the Guardia costiera. The Coast Guard has approximately 11 000 staff. [13]

Corps

Marina Militare is divided into seven corps (by precedence) and one:

  • Corpo di stato maggiore – Corps of Staff Officers (SM) (line officers)
  • Corpo del genio navaleCorps of Naval Engineering (GN)
  • Corpo delle armi navali – Corps of the Naval Arms (AN)
  • Corpo sanitario militare marittimo – Maritime Military Medical Corps (MD) for medics; (FM) for Pharmacists
  • Corpo di commissariato militare marittimo – Corps of Military Maritime Commissariat (CM) (administration)
  • Corpo delle capitanerie di portoCorps of the Port Captaincies (CP) the coast guard
  • Corpo degli equipaggi militari marittimi – Corps of the Military Maritime Crews (CEMM)

Fleet

Command of the Italian Fleet (ships, submarines and amphibious forces) and Naval aviation[14] falls under Commander in Chief Naval Fleet

Equipment

Ships and submarines

Today's Italian Navy is a modern navy with ships of every type. The fleet is in continuous evolution, and as of October 2016 oceangoing fleet units include: two aircraft carriers, three amphibious assault ships, four destroyers, 14 frigates and eight attack submarines. Patrol and littoral warfare units include: 10 offshore patrol vessels and four corvettes. Ten mine countermeasure vessels, four coastal patrol boats, and a varied fleet of auxiliary ships are also in service.[15]

The flagship of the fleet is the carrier Cavour.

Aircraft

The Italian Navy operates a diverse fleet of aircraft including fixed-wing, rotary and UAVs.

Future

The 2014 Naval Act allocated Euro 5.4 billion for the following vessels:[17]

  • 1 x LHA Trieste (for commissioning in 2022: 32,000 t, 244 m, 12 helos AW101, 4 LCU, 620 San Marco marines); to replace CVL Giuseppe Garibaldi (551)
  • 1 x LSS Vulcano class, (for commissioning in 2019: 23,500 t, 185 m, 2 helos AW101); first one on built to replace AOR Stromboli (A5327)
  • 10 x PPA, Pattugliatore Polivalente d'Altura – Offshore Multipurpose Patrol Ship (with three more on option: for commissioning between 2021/2026: 5,800/6,280 t, 143 m, 1 x Oto Melara 127/64 mm Vulcano, 1 x Oto Melara 76/62 mm Strales, + 32 kn, 2 helos NH90/AW101). 7 are financed and 3 more authorized: 16 are planned.
  • 2 x UNPAV "Unità Navale Polivalente Alta Velocità" (high speed special forces boat: on order, for commissioning between 2018/2020: 185 t, 43 m, 40 kn)

The 2017 Balance Law allocated 12.8 billion (2017-2032 years) also for new, undisclosed, ships, which should be:

  • 1 x USSP "Unità Soccorso Sommergibili Polivalente" (Multipurpose submarine rescue vessel)[18] to replace the submarine rescue ship Anteo: 131.5 m x 23 m, 10.500 tonnes, flight deck and hangar for 1 AW-101, ROV, AUV, UUV, hull for artic navigation, etc.
  • 1 x UIOM "Unità Idro Oceanografica Maggiore (Ocean going Hydrographic vessel)[19] to replace the hydrographic survey vessel Ammiraglio Magnaghi: 94 m x 16.6 m, 3,600 tonnes, flight deck and hangar.
  • 8 x COV (Cacciamine Oceanici Veloci - FOMH Fast Oceanic Mine Hunter) to replace Lerici/Gaeta MHC class, since 20s half years: length about 76 m, displacement 1,300/1,400 t, speed about 25 kn, 2 x ROV, 2 x UUV, armed with OTO Melara 25/80 mm turret.

2018 Defence Balance (rumors):

  • 2 additional U-212 updated Hunter-killer submarines (U212CD) are planned with commissioning in 2025-2026 and than 2 other ones, to maintaining the fleet to eight units.

Planned:

  • 1 x LSS Vulcano class, the second one, to replace AOR Vesuvio (A5329)
  • 2 x LHD (20,000 t, 5/6 helos AW101, 4 LCU, 500/600 San Marco troops); to replace LHD Santi class remaining
  • 2 x DDG (Doria/Horizon class development), about 8,000/9,000 t.

Rank structure

Italian Navy ranks hierarchy
Category Admirals Senior officers Junior officers Naval
cadets

OF(D)
NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 Subaltern officers

OF-1
summer uniform
(epaulette)
Shoulder rank insignia of ammiraglio of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of ammiraglio di squadra con incarichi speciali of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of ammiraglio di squadra of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of ammiraglio ispettore comandante of the Italian Coast Guard.svg Shoulder rank insignia of ammiraglio di divisione of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of contrammiraglio of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of capitano di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of capitano di fregata of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of capitano di corvetta of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of primo tenente di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of tenente di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of sottotenente di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of guardiamarina of the Italian Navy.svg Shoulder rank insignia of aspirante guardiamarina of the Italian Navy.svg

winter uniform
(cuff)
Rank insignia of ammiraglio of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of ammiraglio di squadra con incarichi speciali of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of ammiraglio di squadra of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of ammiraglio ispettore comandante of the Italian Coast Guard.svg Rank insignia of ammiraglio di divisione of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of contrammiraglio of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of capitano di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of capitano di fregata of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of capitano di corvetta of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of primo tenente di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of tenente di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of sottotenente di vascello of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of guardiamarina of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of aspirante guardiamarina of the Italian Navy.svg
Italian rank name
ammiraglio1 ammiraglio
di squadra (i.s.)2
ammiraglio
di squadra

ammiraglio ispettore
comandante di corpo

ammiraglio
di divisione

contrammiraglio
capitano
di vascello

capitano
di fregata

capitano
di corvetta

primo tenente
di vascello

tenente
di vascello

sottotenente
di vascello

guardiamarina aspirante
guardiamarina3

English rank name translation admiral squadron admiral (s.a.) squadron admiral Admiral Inspector
Chief of Corps
divisional admiral counter admiral ship-of-the-line captain frigate captain Corvette Captain first ship-of-the-line lieutenant ship-of-the-line lieutenant ship-of-the-line sublieutenant navy guard aspirant
navy guard

Notes:
1 The rank of "ammiraglio" (admiral) is assigned to the only naval officer promoted as chief of the defense staff.

2 The rank of "ammiraglio di squadra con incarichi speciali" (squadron admiral with special assignments) is assigned to the naval officer promoted as chief of the naval staff and/or as secretary of defense.

3 As Officer Designated, the rank of "aspirante guardiamarina" is comparable to the Royal Navy midshipman.

See also

References

External links