|Native name||İstanbul Metrosu|
|Owner||Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||6 (4 more under construction)|
|Number of stations||89 in service; |
64 under construction
|Daily ridership||2 mil|
|Annual ridership||663,1 million (2018)|
|Website||Metro Istanbul (in English)|
|Began operation||3 September 1989|
|Number of vehicles||647|
|System length||15,425 km (9,584.7 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) |
The Istanbul Metro (Turkish: İstanbul Metrosu) is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey. It is operated by Metro Istanbul (known as Istanbul Ulaşım A.Ş. before 2016), a public enterprise, controlled by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The oldest section of the metro is M1 line, which opened in 1989; it now includes 89 stations in service, with 64 more under construction.
The system consists of six lines named M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and the M6 Mini-Metro. More lines are under construction or planned: M8 (Bostancı-Dudullu) will be on the Asian side, while M7 (Kabataş-Mahmutbey), M9 (Ataköy-İkitelli) will be on the European side.
The oldest underground urban rail line in Istanbul is the Tünel, which entered service on January 17, 1875. It is the world's second-oldest underground urban rail line after the London Underground which was built in 1863, and the first underground urban rail line in continental Europe.
The first master plan for a full metro network in Istanbul, titled Avant Projet d'un Métropolitain à Constantinople and conceived by the French engineer L. Guerby, dates to January 10, 1912. The plan comprised a total of 24 stations between the Topkapı and Şişli districts and included a connection through the Golden Horn. Each station would have a 75-metre platform next to the rail line, while the distance between stations varied from 220 to 975 metres. The blueprints of the project, which was never realized, are today displayed at the Istanbul Technical University Museum.
In 1936 the French urban planner Henri Prost proposed a metro network between the districts of Taksim and Beyazıt, to the north and south of the Golden Horn, respectively. In October 1951 the Dutch firm Nedeco proposed a similar route between Taksim and Beyazıt, and in September 1952 the Director of the Paris Transportation Department, Marc Langevin, prepared a 14-chapter report together with his associate Louis Meizzonet for the implementation of the project and its integration with the other means of public transportation in the city. However, these plans never came into effect and all proposals were put on hold until 1987, when the planning for the current Istanbul Metro was made.
Construction works for the first 'modern' mass transit railway system started in 1989.[when?] The M1 was initially called "Hafif Metro" (which literally translates as "light metro"). Although it was built as a fully grade separated line, the M1 line operates with shorter trainsets and shorter station platforms than is standard on a traditional metro line, hence its "light metro" designation. The M1 line was later extended from Aksaray towards the western suburbs, reaching Atatürk Airport in the southwest in 2002. Construction of the M2, began on September 11, 1992, but faced many challenges due to the numerous archaeological sites that were discovered during the drilling process, which slowed down or fully stopped the construction of many stations especially at south. Taking into account the seismic activity in Istanbul, the entire network was built with the cut-and-cover method to withstand an earthquake of up to 9.0 on the Richter magnitude scale.
The first section between Taksim and 4. Levent entered service, after some delays, on September 16, 2000. This line is 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long and has 6 stations, which all look similar but are in different colours. In 2000, there were 8 Alstom-built 4-car train sets in service, which ran every 5 minutes on average and transported 130,000 passengers daily. On January 30, 2009, the first train sets built by Eurotem entered service. Eurotem will build a total of 92 new wagons for the M2 line. As of January 30, 2009, a total of 34 trainsets, each with 4 cars, were being used on the M2 line. A northern extension from 4. Levent to Maslak was opened on January 30, 2009. On September 2, 2010 the northern (temporary) terminus Darüşşafaka followed. The southern extension of the M2 line from Taksim to Yenikapı, across the Golden Horn via Haliç station on the bridge and underground through the historic peninsula, entered service on 15 February 2014. The Taksim-Yenikapı extension is 5.2 km long, with four stations. The total cost of the extension was $593 million. At Yenikapı it will intersect with the extended M1 line and the Marmaray commuter line.
The trip between the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu and the Haciosman station in Maslak is 20 km (12.4 mi) long and takes 27 minutes; including Şişhane - Taksim (1.65 km, 2 minutes), Taksim - 4. Levent (8.5 km, 12 minutes), and 4. Levent - Haciosman (8.1 km, 12 minutes.) The total length of the European side of the M2 line will reach 23 km (14.3 mi) when all 16 stations from Hacıosman to Yenikapı will be completed; not including the 936-metre-long Golden Horn Metro Bridge, the 0.6 km long Taksim-Kabataş tunnel connection with the Seabus port, and the 0.6 km long Yenikapı-Aksaray tunnel connecting the M1 line to the Yenikapı Transfer Center.
On the Asian side, construction is in progress of the remaining portion of the 26.5 km (16.5 mi) long M4 line from Kadıköy to Kaynarca, yielding a total of 19 stations. It cost € 751 million and was built by the Astaldi / Makyol / Gülermak consortium. The first section opened on August 17, 2012, terminating in Kartal. Construction of the 20 km (12.4 mi) long M5 line from Üsküdar via Ümraniye to Sancaktepe started in March 2012.
The Metro operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. every 6–10 minutes. M2 Yenikapı - Hacıosman operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. line During peak-hours the intervals reduce to 3 minutes. There is a flat fare – 2.60 TL with Istanbulkart only (4 TL with token), paid in tokens (which are also valid on the funicular, modern tram, buses and trans-Bosporus ferry boats). Akbil tickets/cards are also valid, which is the most popular method for long distance traveling. The Akbil ticket is valid on all metros, trams, funiculars, ferry boats and buses. Ferryboat and bus fares are not flat, so the price of this transfer ticket also varies depending on the distance to be covered on bus or ferryboat.
This table lists the metro lines currently in service on the Istanbul Metro. An additional five lines are under-construction or planned.
|Yenikapı ↔ Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı||1989||26.1 km||23||The 0.7 km extension to Yenikapi opened on 9 November 2014. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.|
|Yenikapı ↔ Hacıosman||2000||23.5 km||16||Southern extension (3.5 km stretch to Yenikapı, with 3 stations) completed in February 2014. Operates from 06:15 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.|
|Kirazlı ↔ Metrokent–Olimpiyat||2013||15.9 km||11||A southern extension (9.0 km to Bakırköy, with 7 stations) is under construction. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.|
|Kadıköy ↔ Tavşantepe||2012||26.5 km||19||An extension 7.4 km to Sabiha Gökçen International Airport with 4 more stations is under construction. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.|
|Üsküdar ↔ Çekmeköy||2017||20 km||16||Opened on 15 December 2017. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. Time from Üsküdar to Çekmeköy is 27 min.|
|Levent ↔ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü||2015||3.3 km||4||The Mini-Metro is actually a light metro line.|
The Istanbul Metro system has a total of 89 stations in operation with 50 more under construction. Since the majority of the system is underground, stations are generally accessed going down from street level. At every entrance to the metro is a post with the Istanbul metro "M" logo and the station name underneath it. Entrances are usually built into sidewalks along a street, although many stations of newer lines have their entrances from street level on small plazas.
Out of the 89 operating stations of the Istanbul Metro,
Most stations have a mezzanine directly below street level, which allow passengers to enter the stations from multiple locations and proceed to the correct platform without having to cross any streets. Inside the mezzanines are ticket machines and turnstiles, where passengers must pay to enter fare control zones and proceed to the trains.
In some stations, mezzanines connect directly to nearby buildings and structures, such as shopping malls or business centers. Each station concourse or mezzanine are patrolled by Istanbul Metro security guards to prevent fare evasion and crime.
Upon entering the station, passenger may use ticket vending machines or manned ticket booths to purchase their fare, which can be stored on the Istanbulkart contactless smart card. After entering the fare-controlled area, via the turnstiles, passengers may continue further down to the platform level.
Since the different lines of the Istanbul Metro have different specifications, most notably car length, there is no uniform length for platforms. The oldest platforms of the network, built between 1989 and 2002 on the M1 line, are 100 m (330 ft) and can accommodate trains up to 4 cars long. Platforms on the M2, M3 and M4 lines span about 150 m (490 ft) and can each accommodate trains up to 8 cars long. Platforms on the M5 line can accommodate up to 6-car trains, whiles platforms on the M6 line accommodate 4-car trains.
Sections of platforms are subject to close during off-peak hours, especially on the M2 line. While platforms on the M2 line are open fully during peak hours, capacity is reduced to 4-car trains during off-peak hours. Platforms on the M5 line are protected by glass barriers, with doors that open only when a train is in the station. Except on funicular lines, most platforms of the Istanbul Metro consist of two side platforms or one island platform. Five stations consist of two island platforms, serving three tracks. These stations are Otogar on the M1 line, Yenikapı and Sanayi on the M2 line, Olimpiyat on the M3 line, and Bostancı on the M4 line.
This table lists technical characteristics of the metro lines that are currently in service or under construction.
|Yenikapı ↔ Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC||Overhead line|
|Yenikapı ↔ Hacıosman||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC||Third rail|
|Kirazlı ↔ Metrokent–Olimpiyat||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||1,500 V DC||Overhead line|
|Kadıköy ↔ Tavşantepe||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||1,500 V DC||Overhead line|
|Üsküdar ↔ Çekmeköy||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||1,500 V DC||Overhead line|
|Levent ↔ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC||Third rail|
|Kabataş ↔ Mahmutbey||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||1,500 V DC||Overhead line|
|Bostancı ↔ Dudullu||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||1,500 V DC||Overhead line|
|Ataköy ↔ İkitelli||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||1,500 V DC||Overhead line|
The lines have no connection between them. Apart from the Haliç station on the M2 line and about half of the M1 (mostly M1A) line, the lines are fully underground. All station names are on the bus lines as well.
The M2 line has an interchange between F1 in Taksim and an interchange tunnel with the Zincirlikuyu Metrobus station at the Gayrettepe station. There is also a transfer station at Yenikapı with Marmaray, M1 line and İDO Ferry Port; from where it is possible to take the high-speed catamaran Seabus departing for Bursa, Bandırma or Yalova; as well as the other Seabus ports of İstanbul such as Bostancı, Kadıköy, Bakırköy and Kabataş.
The M4 line has a vapur (traditional ferry), motorboat, İDO and nostalgic tram interchange at Kadıköy which is the heart of İstanbul's Asian side. One can also interchange to Marmaray at the Ayrılık Ceşmesi station. Also at Ünalan / Uzunçayır, the line has a Metrobus interchange just like Gayrettepe in M2.
The first Istanbul full metro rolling stocks, which entered service on September 16, 2000 on the Taksim - 4. Levent line, were built by Alstom. These trains are air conditioned and equipped with LCD screens, and share a similar exterior design to the first three generations of rolling stock used on the Caracas Metro in Venezuela.
On January 30, 2009, the first 8 trains (each with 4 wagons) built by Eurotem (the Turkish factory of Hyundai Rotem) entered service. Today the system has 268 trains. These trains are also air conditioned and equipped with LCD screens, as well as dynamic route map showing the location and direction of the train.
In September 2009, CAF signed a contract to supply 144 units for the M4 line, amounting to 1.156.159 euros. These metro units are formed with 4 cars for a total length of 90 meters and have a maximum transport capacity of 1300 passengers.
As part of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality's goal of expanding the size of the city's rail transportation network to 630 km (390 mi) by 2030, the Istanbul Metro has several lines that, as of 2018, are under construction or planned. Since the city does not have a widespread railway network, the Metropolitan Municipality aims to connect urban areas of the city that do not have access the Istanbul's two coastal railways with metro lines.
By 2019, the Municipality aims to open five new metro lines and complete extensions of three existing metro lines. By 2023 the Municipality aims to open three more new lines and complete extensions of six other lines.
The following metro lines are under construction:
|Bakırköy-İDO ↔ Kirazlı||9.0 km (under construction)||7 (under construction)||Line under construction, opening: 2019.|
|Tavşantepe ↔ Sabiha Gökçen Airport||7.4 km (under construction)||4 (under construction)||Line under construction, opening: 2018.|
|Kabataş ↔ Mahmutbey||24.5 km (under construction)||19 (under construction)||Line under construction, opening: 2019.|
|Bostancı-İDO ↔ Dudullu||14.27 km (under construction)||13 (under construction)||Line under construction, opening: 2019.|
|Ataköy ↔ İkitelli||13.0 km (under construction)||12 (under construction)||Line under construction, opening: 2019.|
|Gayrettepe ↔ İstanbul New Airport||37.2 km (under construction)||9 (under construction)||Line under construction, opening: 2019.|
Construction of the following metro lines are planned or on hold:
|Kirazlı ↔ Halkalı||9.70 km (on hold)||9 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
|Yenikapı ↔ Sefaköy||14 km (tender phase)||11 (tender phase)||Line in the tender phase.|
|Başakşehir ↔ Kayaşehir||6.20 km (on hold)||5 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
|Tavşantepe ↔ Tuzla||7.90 km (on hold)||7 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
|Çekmeköy–Sancaktepe ↔ Sultanbeyli||10.90 km (on hold)||9 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
|Mahmutbey ↔ Esenyurt||18.50 km (on hold)||12 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
|Pendik Sahil ↔ Kaynarca Merkez||5.10 km (on hold)||2 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
|Göztepe ↔ Ümraniye||13.03 km (on hold)||11 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
|Hastane ↔ Yenidoğan||6.90 km (on hold)||6 (on hold)||Line on hold.|
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