"Ipomoea" is also a novel by John Rackham, published by Ace Books in 1969.
MHNT ( Ipomoea  ) is the largest  genus in the flowering plant family Convolvulaceae, with over 500 species. It is a large and diverse group with common names including morning glory, water convolvulus or kangkung, sweet potato, bindweed, moonflower, etc.
The most widespread common name is
, but there are also species in related genera bearing the same common name. Those formerly separated in morning glories Calonyction (Greek  καλός "good" and kalós νύξ, νυκτός , núx , "night") are called moonflowers. nuktós The generic name is derived from the  Greek ἴψ, ἰπός ( , íps ), meaning " ipós woodworm", and ὅμοιος ( ), meaning "resembling." It refers to their twining habit. hómoios The genus occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and comprises  annual and perennial herbaceous plants, lianas, shrubs and small trees; most of the species are twining climbing plants.
Uses and ecology
Human use of
Most species have spectacular, colorful flowers and are often grown as
ornamentals, and a number of cultivars have been developed. Their deep flowers attract large Lepidoptera - especially Sphingidae such as the pink-spotted hawk moth ( Agrius cingulata) - or even hummingbirds. The genus includes
food crops; the tubers of sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas) and the leaves of water spinach ( I. aquatica) are commercially important food items and have been for millennia. The sweet potato is one of the Polynesian " canoe plants", transplanted by settlers on islands throughout the Pacific. Water spinach is used all over eastern Asia and the warmer regions of the Americas as a key component of well-known dishes, such as (Mekong sour soup) or canh chua rau muống callaloo; its numerous local names attest to its popularity. Other species are used on a smaller scale, e.g. the whitestar potato ( ) traditionally eaten by some I. lacunosa Native Americans, such as the Chiricahua Apaches, or the Australian bush potato ( ). I. costata
Peonidin, an anthocyanidin potentially useful as a food additive, is present in significant quantities in the flowers of the 'Heavenly Blue' cultivars. Moon vine (
) sap was used for I. alba vulcanization of the latex of (Panama rubber tree, Castilla elastica Nahuatl: olicuáhuitl) to rubber; as it happens, the rubber tree seems well-suited for the vine to twine upon, and the two species are often found together. As early as 1600 BCE, the Olmecs produced the balls used in the Mesoamerican ballgame.  The root called John the Conqueror in hoodoo and used in lucky and/or sexual charms (though apparently not as a component of love potions, because it is a strong laxative if ingested) usually seems to be from . The I. jalapa testicle-like dried tubers are carried as amulets and rubbed by the users to gain good luck in gambling or flirting. As Willie Dixon wrote, somewhat tongue-in-cheek, in his song "Rub My Root" (a Muddy Waters version is titled "My John the Conquer Root"):
My pistol may snap, my mojo is frail
But I rub my root, my luck will never fail
When I rub my root, my John the Conquer root
Aww, you know there ain't nothin' she can do, Lord,
I rub my John the Conquer root
As medicine and entheogen
Ipomoea for their content of medical and psychoactive compounds, mainly alkaloids. Some species are renowned for their properties in folk medicine and herbalism; for example Vera Cruz jalap ( ) and Tampico jalap ( I. jalapa I. simulans) are used to produce jalap, a cathartic preparation accelerating the passage of stool. (giant potato, Kiribadu Ala I. mauritiana) is one of the many ingredients of , the ancient chyawanprash Ayurvedic tonic called "the elixir of life" for its wide-ranging properties.
The leaves of
I. batatas are eaten as a vegetable, and have been shown to slow oxygenation of LDLs, with some similar potential health benefits to green tea and grape polyphenols.
Other species were and still are used as potent
entheogens. Seeds of Mexican morning glory ( tlitliltzin, I. tricolor) were thus used by Aztecs and Zapotecs in shamanistic and priestly divination rituals, and at least by the former also as a poison, to give the victim a " horror trip" (see also Aztec entheogenic complex). Beach moonflower ( I. violacea) was also used thus, and the cultivars called 'Heavenly Blue Morning Glory', touted today for their psychoactive properties, seem to represent an indeterminable assembly of hybrids of these two species. Ergine
(D-lysergic acid amide)
Ergoline derivatives ( lysergamides) are probably responsible for the entheogenic activity. Ergine (LSA), isoergine, and D-lysergic acid N-(α-hydroxyethyl)amide lysergol have been isolated from I. tricolor, I. violacea and/or purple morning glory ( I. purpurea); although these are often assumed to be the cause of the plants' effects, this is not supported by scientific studies, which show although they are psychoactive, they are not notably hallucinogenic. Alexander Shulgin in suggests TiHKAL ergonovine is responsible, instead. It has verified psychoactive properties, though as yet other undiscovered lysergamides possibly are present in the seeds.
Though most often noted as "recreational" drugs, the lysergamides are also of medical importance. Ergonovine enhances the action of
oxytocin, used to still bleeding. Ergine induces drowsiness and a relaxed state and might be useful in treating post partum anxiety disorder. Whether Ipomoea species are a useful source of these compounds remains to be determined. In any case, in some jurisdictions certain Ipomoea are regulated, e.g. by the Louisiana State Act 159 which bans cultivation of I. violacea except for ornamental purposes.
Pests and diseases
herbivores avoid morning glories such as Ipomoea, as the high alkaloid content makes these plants unpalatable, if not toxic. Nonetheless, Ipomoea species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths); see list of Lepidoptera which feed on . For a selection of diseases of the sweet potato ( Ipomoea I. batatas), many of which also infect other members of this genus, see List of sweet potato diseases.
Ipomoea abrupta R.Br.
Ipomoea alba L. – moon vine
Ipomoea alpina Rendle
Ipomoea amnicola – red-center morning glory Morong
Ipomoea aquatica – water spinach, water morning glory, water convolvulus, "Chinese spinach", "swamp cabbage" Forssk.
Ipomoea arborescens G.Don
Ipomoea barbatisepala A.Gray
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. – sweet potato, "tuberous morning glory"
Ipomoea batatoides Benth.
– Coast morning glory, Cairo morning glory, mile-a-minute vine, Messina creeper, railroad creeper Ipomoea cairica
Ipomoea calobra F.Muell.
Ipomoea capillacea (Kunth) G.Don
– pink morning glory, Ipomoea carnea canudo-de-pita ( Brazil)
Ipomoea chrysocalyx D.F.Austin
– red morning glory, redstar, Mexican morning glory Ipomoea coccinea
Ipomoea cordatotriloba L. – little violet morning glory
Ipomoea cordatotriloba var. torreyana – purple bindweed
Ipomoea cordifolia Carey ex Voight – heart-leaved morning glory
– rock morning glory, bush potato Ipomoea costata
Ipomoea costellata Torr. – crest-ribbed morning glory
Ipomoea cristulata Hallier f. – trans-Pecos morning glory
Ipomoea cynanchifolia ( Meisn.) Mart.
Ipomoea daturaefolia Meisn.
Ipomoea demerariana Choisy (= I. phyllomega)
Ipomoea diversifolia R.Br.
Ipomoea dumetorum Willd. ex Roemer & J.A.Schultes – railwaycreeper
Ipomoea eggersiana Peter
Ipomoea eggersii (House) D.Austin – Egger's morning glory
Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br.
Ipomoea gracilis R.Br.
Ipomoea graminea R.Br.
– ivy-leaved morning glory Ipomoea hederacea
– scarlet morning glory, scarlet creeper, star ipomoea, Ipomoea hederifolia trompillo (= I. coccinea Sessé & Moc.)
Ipomoea holubii Baker
Ipomoea horrida Huber
– Lady Doorly's morning glory, cardinal creeper, Prince Kuhio vine Ipomoea horsfalliae
Ipomoea imperati (Vahl) Griseb. 
Ipomoea incisa R.Br.
– oceanblue morning glory, blue morning glory, blue dawn flower, Ipomoea indica koali awa (Hawaii)
Ipomoea jalapa (L.) Pursh.
Ipomoea krugii Urban – Krug's white morning glory
Ipomoea lacunosa L. – whitestar potato, whitestar
– bush morning glory, bush moonflower, manroot Ipomoea leptophylla
Ipomoea leucantha Jacq. ( non Webb ex Hook., Desv. ex Ham.)
Ipomoea lindheimeri Gray – Lindheimer's morning glory
Ipomoea littoralis Blume – white-flowered beach morning glory
Ipomoea lobata (Cerv.) Thell. – fire vine, Spanish flag Ipomoea longifolia Benth. – pink-throated morning glory
Ipomoea macrorhiza Michx. – large-rooted morning glory
Ipomoea marginata (Desr.) Verdc.
Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. – giant potato, kiribadu ala, likam (Hawaii)
Ipomoea meyeri (Spreng.) G.Don – Meyer's morning glory
Ipomoea microdactyla Griseb. – calcareous morning glory
– 'Cardinal Climber' ( Ipomoea × multifida I. coccinea × I. quamoclit)
– white-edged morning glory, ivy morning glory, Japanese morning glory Ipomoea nil
– obscure morning glory, small white morning glory Ipomoea obscura
Ipomoea ochracea (Lindl.) G.Don – fence morning glory
Ipomoea oenotherae Hallier f.
– wild potato vine, big-rooted morning glory, man-of-the-earth, manroot Ipomoea pandurata
Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br. – beach morning glory, " goat's foot"
Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis – salsa-da-praia (Brazil)
Ipomoea plebeia R.Br.
Ipomoea plummerae Gray – Huachuca Mountain morning glory
Ipomoea polymorpha Roem. & Schult. (= I. heterophylla R.Br.)
Ipomoea prismatosyphon Welw.
Ipomoea pubescens Lam. – silky morning glory (= I. heterophylla Ortega)
Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne – Vera Cruz jalap (= I. jalapa auct. ) non L.
– common morning glory, purple morning glory, tall morning glory Ipomoea purpurea
– cypress vine, cypressvine morning glory, cardinal creeper, cardinal vine, star glory, "hummingbird vine" Ipomoea quamoclit
Ipomoea racemigera F.Muell. & Tate
Ipomoea repanda Jacq. – bejuco colorado
Ipomoea rubens Choisy (= I. fragans)
Ipomoea rupicola House – cliff morning glory
Ipomoea sagittata Poir. – saltmarsh morning glory
Ipomoea setifera Poir. – bejuco de puerco
Ipomoea setosa Ker Gawl. – Brazilian morning glory
Ipomoea shumardiana (Torr.) Shinners – narrow-leaved morning glory
Ipomoea simplex Thunb.
Ipomoea simulans – Tampico jalap, purga de Sierra Gorda
– cardinal climber Ipomoea × sloteri
Ipomoea steudelii Millsp. – Steudel's morning glory
Ipomoea tastensis Brandegee from Baja California Sur
Ipomoea temascaltepecensis Wilkin 
Ipomoea tenuiloba Torr. – spiderleaf
Ipomoea tenuirostris 
Ipomoea tenuissima Choisy – rockland morning glory
Ipomoea ternifolia Cav. – triple-leaved morning glory
Ipomoea thurberi Gray – Thurber's morning glory
Ipomoea tricolor Cav. – Mexican morning glory, tlitliltzin (Nahuatl), badoh negro
Wild ancestor of the sweet potato Ipomoea trifida
– Ipomoea triloba littlebell, Aiea morning glory
Ipomoea tuberosa L. – Hawaiian woodrose
Ipomoea tuboides O.Deg. & van Ooststr. – Hawaii morning glory
Ipomoea turbinata Lag. – lilacbell
Ipomoea velutina R.Br.
Ipomoea violacea L. – beach moonflower, sea moonflower – Wright's morning glory Ipomoea wrightii
Formerly placed here
Ellisia nyctelea (L.) L. (as I. nyctelea L.)
Jacquemontia ovalifolia (as I. ovalifolia Choisy)
Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb. (as I. tamnifolia L.)
Merremia aegyptia (L.) Urb. (as I. aegyptia L.)
Merremia cissoides (Lam.) Hallier f. (as I. cissoides (Lam.) Griseb.)
Merremia discoidesperma (Donn. Sm.) O'Donell (as I. discoidesperma Donn. Sm.)
Merremia dissecta (Jacq.) Hallier f. (as I. dissecta (Jacq.) Pursh or I. sinuata Ortega)
Merremia emarginata (Burm. f.) Hallier f. (as I. reniformis (Roxb.) Sweet)
Merremia kingii (Prain) Kerr (as I. kingii Prain)
Merremia mammosa (Lour.) Hallier f. (as I. mammosa (Lour.) Choisy)
Merremia peltata (L.) Merr. (as I. nymphaeifolia Blume)
Merremia pterygocaulos (Choisy) Hallier f. (as I. pterygocaulos Choisy) Merremia quinquefolia (L.) Hallier f. (as I. quinquefolia L.)
Merremia sibirica (L.) Hallier f. (as I. sibirica (L.) Pers.)
Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle (as I. tuberosa L.)
Merremia umbellata (L.) Hallierf. (as I. polyanthes Roem. & Schult. or I. pterodes Choisy)
Operculina aequisepala (Domin) R.W.Johnson (as I. aequisepala Domin)
Operculina hamiltonii (G.Don) D.F.Austin & Staples ( I. hamiltonii G.Don)
Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso (as I. turpethum (L.) R.Br.)
Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi (as I. kadsura Choisy)
Stictocardia macalusoi (Mattei) Verdc. (as I. macalusoi Mattei)
Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr.) Hallier f. (as I. campanulata L.)
Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf. (as I. burmannii Choisy)
Xenostegia medium (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples (as I. medium (L.) Druce) Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples (as I. angustifolia Jacq.) 
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