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Iodine pentafluoride

Iodine pentafluoride
Stereo structural formula of iodine pentafluoride
Space-filling model of iodine pentafluoride
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Iodine(V) fluoride
Systematic IUPAC name
Pentafluoro-λ5-iodane
Other names
Iodic fluoride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.108
EC Number 232-019-7
Properties
IF5
Molar mass 221.89 g/mol
Appearance colorless liquid
Density 3.250 g/cm3
Melting point 9.43 °C (48.97 °F; 282.58 K)
Boiling point 97.85 °C (208.13 °F; 371.00 K)
Reacts
−58.1·10−6 cm3/mol
Viscosity 2.111 mPa·s
Structure
monoclinic
point group C2/c
square pyramidal
square pyramidal[1]
Hazards
Main hazards Toxic, oxidizing, corrosive.
Safety data sheet External MSDS
GHS pictograms GHS03: Oxidizing GHS05: Corrosive GHS06: Toxic GHS09: Environmental hazard
GHS signal word Danger
H271, H330, H311, H301, H314, H371, H410[2]
P202, P232, P304, P310[2]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g. white phosphorusSpecial hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g. sodium, sulfuric acidNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
3
2
Related compounds
Other anions
Iodine pentoxide
Other cations
Bromine pentafluoride
Related compounds
Iodine monofluoride
Iodine trifluoride
Iodine heptafluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Iodine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with chemical formula IF5. It is one of the fluorides of iodine. It is a colorless liquid, although impure samples appear yellow. It is used as a fluorination reagent and even a solvent in specialized syntheses.[3]

Preparation

It was first synthesized by Henri Moissan in 1891 by burning solid iodine in fluorine gas.[4] This exothermic reaction is still used to produce iodine pentafluoride, although the reaction conditions have been improved.[5]

I2 + 5 F2 → 2 IF5

Reactions

It reacts vigorously with water forming hydrofluoric acid and iodic acid:

IF5 + 3H2O → HIO3 + 5HF

Upon treatment with fluorine, it converts to iodine heptafluoride:[6]

IF5 + F2 → IF7

It has been used as a solvent for handling metal fluorides. For example, the reduction of osmium hexafluoride with iodine is conducted in a solution in iodine pentafluoride:[7]

10 OsF6 + I2 → 10 OsF5 + 2 IF5

Primary amines react with iodine pentafluoride forming nitriles after hydrolysis[8]

Popular culture

Iodine pentafluoride is available as a "Special Gas" for flooding into the atmosphere of the escape shuttle in the terminal sequence of 1979 film Alien.

References

  1. ^ Durbank, R. D.; Jones, G. R. (1974). "Crystal structure of Iodine Pentafluoride at -80°". Inorganic Chemistry. 13 (5): 421–439. doi:10.1021/ic50135a012.
  2. ^ a b [www.chemadvisor.com]
  3. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  4. ^ Moissan, M. H. (1891). "Nouvelles Recherches sur le Fluor". Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 6 (24): 224–282.
  5. ^ Ruff, O.; Keim, R. (1931). "Fluorierung von Verbindungen des Kohlenstoffs (Benzol und Tetrachlormethan mit Jod-5-fluorid, sowie Tetrachlormethan mit Fluor) [Fluoridation of Carbon Compounds (Benzene and Tetrachlormethane with Iodine-5-Fluoride, and Tetrachloromethane with Fluorine)]". Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie (in German). 201 (1): 245–258. doi:10.1002/zaac.19312010122.
  6. ^ Ruff, O.; Keim, R. (1930). "Das Jod-7-fluorid [The iodine-7-fluoride]". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie (in German). 193 (1): 176–186. doi:10.1002/zaac.19301930117.
  7. ^ Holloway, John H.; Mitchell, S. J. (1971). "Preparation and Crystal Structure of Osmium Pentafluoride". Journal of the Chemical Society: 2789-94. doi:10.1039/J19710002789.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Stevens, T. E. (1966). "Rearrangement of Amides with Iodine Pentafluoride". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 31 (6): 2025–2026. doi:10.1021/jo01344a539.

Further reading

External links