Inessive case (abbreviated INE; from Latin inesse "to be in or at") is a locative grammatical case. This case carries the basic meaning of "in": for example, "in the house" is "talo·ssa" in Finnish, "maja·s" in Estonian, "куд·са" (kud·sa) in Moksha, "etxea·n" in Basque, "nam·e" in Lithuanian, "sāt·ā" in Latgalian and "ház·ban" in Hungarian.
In Finnish the inessive case is typically formed by adding "ssa/ssä". Estonian adds "s" to the genitive stem. In Moksha, "са" (sa) is added. In Hungarian, the suffix "ban/ben" is most commonly used for inessive case, although many others, such as "on/en/ön" and others are also used, especially with cities.
In the Finnish language, the inessive case is considered the first (in Estonian the second) of the six locative cases, which correspond to locational prepositions in English. The remaining five cases are:
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The Finnish inessive uses the suffix -ssa or -ssä (depending on vowel harmony). It is usually added to nouns and associated adjectives.
It is used in the following ways:
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