Idoxuridine is mainly used topically to treat herpes simplexkeratitis. Epithelial lesions, especially initial attacks presenting with a dendritic ulcer, are most responsive to therapy, while infection with stromal involvement are less responsive. Idoxuridine is ineffective against herpes simplex virus type 2 and varicella-zoster.
Idoxuridine is available as either a 0.5% ophthalmic ointment or as a 0.1% ophthalmic solution. The dosage of the ointment is every 4 hours during day and once before bedtime. The dosage of the solution is 1 drop in the conjunctival sac hourly during the day and every 2 hours during the night until definitive improvement, then 1 drop every 2 hours during the day and every 4 hours during the night. Therapy is continued for 3–4 days after healing is complete, as demonstrated by fluorescein staining.
^Chang, P. K.; Welch, A. D. (1963). "Iodination of 2'-Deoxycytidine and Related Substances1". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (4): 428–430. doi:10.1021/jm00340a019.
Seth A, Misra A, Umrigar D (2004). "Topical liposomal gel of idoxuridine for the treatment of herpes simplex: pharmaceutical and clinical implications". Pharm Dev Technol. 9 (3): 277–289. doi:10.1081/PDT-200031432. PMID15458233.
Otto S (1998). "Radiopharmaceuticals (Strontium 89) and radiosensitizers (idoxuridine)". J Intraven Nurs. 21 (6): 335–7. PMID10392098.