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|Paradigms and models|
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The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is an organization within IEEE that develops global standards in a broad range of industries, including: power and energy, biomedical and health care, information technology and robotics, telecommunication and home automation, transportation, nanotechnology, information assurance, and many more.
IEEE-SA has developed standards for over a century, through a program that offers balance, openness, fair procedures, and consensus. Technical experts from all over the world participate in the development of IEEE standards.
IEEE-SA is not a body formally authorized by any government, but rather a community. ISO, IEC and ITU are recognized international standards organizations. ISO members are national standards bodies such as American ANSI, German DIN or Japanese JISC. IEC members are so called National Committees, some of which are hosted by national standards bodies. These are not identical to ISO members. Both IEC and ISO develop International Standards that are consensus-based and follow the "one country one vote principle", representing broad industry needs. Their standards cannot be sponsored by individual companies or organizations.
The 2017-2018 Standards Association President is Mr. Don Wright. He is the President of Standards Strategies, LLC and is the retired Director of Worldwide Standards for Lexmark International.
Each year, the IEEE-SA conducts over 200 standards ballots, a process by which proposed standards are voted upon for technical reliability and soundness. In 2017, IEEE had over 1100 active standards, with over 600 standards under development.
One of the more notable are the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN group of standards, with the widely used computer networking standards for both wired (ethernet, aka IEEE 802.3) and wireless (IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.16) networks.
The IEEE standards development process can be broken down into seven basic steps:
Because the IEEE's standards often incorporate technologies that are covered by one or more patent claims, the IEEE-SA has developed and added to its governing bylaws a patent policy to ensure both that the implementers using the standard-essential patented technology in their standard-compliant products have access to that technology and that the patent holders that voluntarily contribute those technologies to the standard receive adequate compensation for the implementers' use. An important part of the IEEE patent policy is the FRAND commitment, which is a voluntary contractual commitment signifying that a patent holder with patented technology that has been adopted into one of the IEEE's standards will accept as adequate compensation a fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory royalty for third-party use of that technology. Most standard-setting organizations have developed similar patent policies with similar commitments.
In 2014, the IEEE-SA became the center of a large academic debate among economic and legal scholars when it appointed an ad hoc committee to recommend and subsequently draft amendments to the IEEE patent policy, to which the IEEE Board of Governors gave final approval in February 2015 and which went into effect in March 2015. The IEEE said that the reason for the amendments was to increase the clarity of the patent policy and the obligations that the patent policy's FRAND commitment imposes on patent holders seeking to enforce their standard-essential patents. One particularly controversial amendment was a provision that prohibited patent holders from seeking injunctions and exclusion orders (from the ITC) against infringers of standard-essential patents.
The Antitrust Division stated its support for the 2015 patent policy revisions in a business review letter that it issued in January 2015, upon request from the IEEE-SA. In the letter, the Antitrust Division said that the provisions would unambiguously produce net benefits for consumers with insignificant anticompetitive implications. At least one commentator has criticized the Antitrust Division's legal and economic analysis put forth in its business review letter of the revisions, claiming that the Antitrust Division exaggerated the patent policy's procompetitive benefits and wrongly dismissed as unlikely some of its potential anticompetitive costs.
The IEEE Get Program makes some standards publicly available for download: This program grants public access to view and download current individual standards at zero charges. On July 11, 2017, the IEEE Get Program moved to the IEEE Xplore digital library website and standards eligible for the program past that date will only be made available there. On September 1, 2017, the original website was decommissioned and remains, without further updates, to redirect visitors.
|IEEE 260||Standard Letter Symbols for Units of Measurement, IEEE-260-1978 (now 260.1-2004)|
|IEEE 488||Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation, IEEE-488-1978 (now 488.1)|
|IEEE 610||Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology|
|IEEE 754||Floating point arithmetic specifications|
|IEEE 802.1||Standards for LAN/MAN bridging and management and remote media access control (MAC) bridging|
|IEEE 802.2||Standards for Logical Link Control (LCL) standards for connectivity|
|IEEE 802.3||Ethernet Standards for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)|
|IEEE 802.4||Standards for token passing bus access|
|IEEE 802.5||Standards for token ring access and for communications between LANs and MANs|
|IEEE 802.6||Standards for information exchange between systems|
|IEEE 802.7||Standards for broadband LAN cabling|
|IEEE 802.8||Fiber-optic connection|
|IEEE 802.9||Standards for integrated services, like voice and data|
|IEEE 802.10||Standards for LAN/MAN security implementations|
|IEEE 802.11||Wireless Networking – "WiFi"|
|IEEE 802.12||Standards for demand priority access method|
|IEEE 802.14||Standards for cable television broadband communications|
|IEEE 802.15.2||Bluetooth and Wi-Fi coexistence mechanism|
|IEEE 802.15.4||Wireless Sensor/Control Networks – "ZigBee"|
|IEEE 802.15.6||Wireless Body Area Network (BAN) – (e.g. Bluetooth low energy)|
|IEEE 802.16||Wireless Networking – "WiMAX"|
|IEEE 802.24||Standards for Logical Link Control (LLC) standards for connectivity|
|IEEE 828||Configuration Management in Systems and Software Engineering|
|IEEE 829||Software Test Documentation|
|IEEE 830||Software Requirements Specifications|
|IEEE 1003||Unix compatibility programming standard – POSIX|
|IEEE 1016||Software Design Description|
|IEEE 1028||Standard for Software Reviews and Audits|
|IEEE 1044.1||Standard Classification for Software Anomalies|
|IEEE 1059||Software Verification And Validation Plan|
|IEEE 1073||Point of Care Medical Device Communication Standards|
|IEEE 1074||Software Development Life Cycle|
|IEEE 1076||VHDL – VHSIC Hardware Description Language|
|IEEE 1180||Discrete cosine transform accuracy|
|IEEE 1233||System Requirements Specification|
|IEEE 1275||Open Firmware|
|IEEE 1284||Parallel port|
|IEEE P1363||Public key cryptography|
|IEEE 1394||Serial bus – "FireWire", "i.Link"|
|IEEE 1471||software architecture / system architecture|
|IEEE 1541||Prefixes for Binary Multiples|
|IEEE 1584||Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations|
|IEEE 1588||Precision Time Protocol|
|IEEE P1619||Security in Storage Working Group (SISWG)|
|IEEE 1666||IEEE Standard for Standard SystemC Language Reference Manual|
|IEEE 1667||Standard Protocol for Authentication in Host Attachments of Transient Storage Devices|
|IEEE 1801||Unified Power Format|
|IEEE 1849||IEEE Standard for eXtensible Event Stream (XES) for Achieving Interoperability in Event Logs and Event Streams|
|IEEE 1855||IEEE Standard for Fuzzy Markup Language|
|IEEE 1901||Broadband over Power Line Networks|
|IEEE 1906.1||Recommended Practice for Nanoscale and Molecular Communication Framework|
|IEEE 1914||Next Generation Fronthaul Interface Working Group|
|IEEE 1914.1||Standard for Packet-based Fronthaul Transport Networks|
|IEEE 1914.3||Standard for Radio Over Ethernet Encapsulations and Mappings|
|IEEE 2050||RTOS for embedded systems standard|
|IEEE 2600||Hardcopy Device and System Security (and related ISO/IEC 15408 Protection Profiles)|
|IEEE 12207||Information Technology – Software life-cycle processes|
|IEEE Switchgear Committee||C37 series of standards for Low and High voltage equipment|
The IEEE-SA recognizes outstanding standards development participation through various award categories.