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ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases. Work on ICD-10 began in 1983, in 1990 it was endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly, and was first used by member states in 1994.
The code set in the base classification allows for more than 14,000 different codes, and permits the tracking of many new diagnoses compared to ICD-9. Through the use of optional sub-classifications the number of codes can be expanded to over 16,000. Some national editions expand the code set even further; ICD-10-CM, for example, has over 70,000 codes.
The WHO provides detailed information about ICD online and makes available a set of materials online, such as an ICD-10 online browser, ICD-10 Training, ICD-10 online training, ICD-10 online training support, and study guide materials for download.
The International version of ICD is the base classification for the national modifications of ICD. The adapted versions may differ in a number of ways.
|I||A00–B99||Certain infectious and parasitic diseases|
|III||D50–D89||Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism|
|IV||E00–E90||Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases|
|V||F00–F99||Mental and behavioural disorders|
|VI||G00–G99||Diseases of the nervous system|
|VII||H00–H59||Diseases of the eye and adnexa|
|VIII||H60–H95||Diseases of the ear and mastoid process|
|IX||I00–I99||Diseases of the circulatory system|
|X||J00–J99||Diseases of the respiratory system|
|XI||K00–K93||Diseases of the digestive system|
|XII||L00–L99||Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue|
|XIII||M00–M99||Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue|
|XIV||N00–N99||Diseases of the genitourinary system|
|XV||O00–O99||Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium|
|XVI||P00–P96||Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period|
|XVII||Q00–Q99||Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities|
|XVIII||R00–R99||Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified|
|XIX||S00–T98||Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes|
|XX||V01–Y98||External causes of morbidity and mortality|
|XXI||Z00–Z99||Factors influencing health status and contact with health services|
|XXII||U00–U99||Codes for special purposes|
Approximately 27 countries use ICD-10 for reimbursement and resource allocation in their health system, and some have made modifications to ICD to better accommodate its utility. The unchanged international version of ICD-10 is used in 117 countries for performing cause of death reporting and statistics.
The national versions may differ from the base classification in the level of detail, incomplete adoption of a category, or the addition of procedure codes. For example, the ICD-10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) used in the US has over 70,000 procedure codes,[not in citation given] compared to the ~14,000 within the international version.
Brazil introduced ICD-10 in 1996.
Canada introduced ICD-10-CA in 2000. Canada implemented ICD-10 in a staggered fashion across nine of the 10 provinces between the years of 2001 and 2004. As data was returned, comparison was undertaken of information classified by ICD-9 and ICD-10, beginning with volumes and length of stay within major diagnostic groups.
The large scale realignment of individual diagnostic and procedural codes demanded close analysis of the impacts to existing indicators of healthcare delivery. Using data reported in 2001 and 2002, the Canadian Institute for Health Information, an independent organization that works with the federal government, tabulated the input. Rigorous statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the comparability of ICD-9 codes to ICD-10 codes as they pertained to the Canadian version of diagnostic groups, Case Mix Groups (CMGs), which are used in the patient classification system to group together patients with similar characteristics.
The Czech Republic adopted ICD-10 in 1994, one year after official release from WHO. The Czech Republic uses the international version without any local modifications. The Czech Republic adopted all updates to the international version (namely in 2004,2010,2011,2012).
A Korean modification has existed since 2008.
The Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation ordered in 1997 to transfer all health organizations to ICD-10.
ICD-10 was implemented in July 2005 under the auspice of the National ICD-10 Implementation Task Team which is a joint task team between the National Department of Health and the Council for Medical Schemes.
The current Swedish translation of ICD-10 was created in 1997. A clinical modification has added more detail and omits codes of the international version in the context of clinical use of ICD:
The codes F64.1 (Dual-role transvestism), F64.2 (Gender identity disorder of childhood), F65.0 (Fetishism), F65.1 (Fetishistic transvestism), F65.5 (Sadomasochism), F65.6 (Multiple disorders of sexual preference) are not used in Sweden since 1 January 2009 according to a decision by the present Director General of The National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden. The code O60.0 (Preterm labor without delivery) is not used in Sweden; instead, since 1 January 2009, the Swedish extension codes to O47 (False labor) are recommended for use.
First published in 1998, the ICD-10-TM (Thai Modification) is a Thai language version of ICD-10. Maintenance and development of ICD-10-TM is the responsibility of the Thai Health Coding Center (THCC), a department of the Thai Ministry of Public Health. The current version of ICD-10-TM is based on the 2016 version of ICD-10. An unusual feature of the index of ICD-10-TM is that it is bilingual, containing both Thai and English trails.
Along with Czechoslovakia and Denmark; Thailand was one of the first adopters of ICD-10 for coding purposes.
ICD-10 was first mandated for use in the UK in 1995. In 2010 the UK Government made a commitment to update the UK version of ICD-10 every three years. On 1 April 2016, following a year's delay, ICD-10 5th Edition[note 1] replaced the 4th Edition as the mandated diagnostic classification within the UK.
When the transition from the ICD-9 CM to the ICD-10 CM was first announced in the U.S., many providers were concerned with the vast number of codes being added, the complexity of the new coding system, and the costs associated with the transition . CMS weighed these cons against the benefits of having more accurate data collection, clearer documentation of diagnoses and procedures, and more accurate claims processing. In the end, CMS decided the financial and public health cost associated with continuing to use the ICD-9 CM was too high and mandated the switch to ICD-10 CM by October 1, 2015.
The U.S. has used ICD-10-CM since October 1, 2015. This national variant of ICD-10 was provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and the use of ICD-10-CM codes are now mandated for all inpatient medical reporting requirements. There are over 70,000 ICD-10-CM procedure codes and over 69,000 diagnosis codes, compared to about 3,800 procedure codes and roughly 14,000 diagnosis codes found in the ICD-9 CM.
The use of ICD-10 for coding of death certificates and mortality data was mandated in the United States beginning in 1999. However, morbidity data in the U.S. is still coded using ICD-9-CM codes. 
The deadline for the United States to begin using Clinical Modification ICD-10-CM for diagnosis coding and Procedure Coding System ICD-10-PCS for inpatient hospital procedure coding was set at October 1, 2015, which is a year later than a previous 2014 deadline. Before that 2014 deadline, the previous deadline has been a year before that on October 1, 2013. All HIPAA "covered entities" were required to make the change; a pre-requisite to ICD-10-CM is the adoption of EDI Version 5010 by January 1, 2012. Enforcement of 5010 transition by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), however, was postponed by CMS until March 31, 2012, with the federal agency citing numerous factors, including slow software upgrades. The implementation of ICD-10-CM has been subject to previous delays. In January 2009, the date was pushed back by two years, to October 1, 2013, rather than an earlier proposal of October 1, 2011.
Two of the most common complaints about the ICD-10-CM are 1) the long list of potentially relevant codes for a given condition (such as rheumatoid arthritis) which can be confusing and reduce efficiency and 2) the seemingly absurd conditions assigned codes (such as W55.22XA: Struck by cow, initial encounter and V91.07XA: Burn due to water-skis on fire, initial encounter).