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Huanggang

Huanggang

黄冈市

Hwangkang
Skyline of Huanggang
Skyline of Huanggang
Location of Huanggang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Location of Huanggang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Huanggang is located in Hubei
Huanggang
Huanggang
Location of the city centre in Hubei
Coordinates (Huanggang government): 30°27′14″N 114°52′19″E / 30.454°N 114.872°E / 30.454; 114.872
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHubei
Area
 • Prefecture-level city17,446.63 km2 (6,736.18 sq mi)
 • Urban
363.23 km2 (140.24 sq mi)
Population
 (2010 census[2])
 • Prefecture-level city6,162,069
 • Urban
366,769
 • Urban density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
 • Metro
Ezhou
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
ISO 3166 codeCN-HB-11
Local DialectLower Yangtze Mandarin
Website黄冈市政府门户网站 (Huanggang City Government Web Portal) (in Simplified Chinese)
Huanggang
Traditional Chinese黃岡
Simplified Chinese黄冈

Huanggang is a prefecture-level city in easternmost Hubei Province, China. It is situated to the north of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and is bounded in the north by the Dabie Mountains and is named after Mount Huanggang.[1] It borders Henan in the north, Anhui in the east and Jiangxi in the south.

The city's administrative area covers 17,453 square kilometres (6,739 sq mi) and the total population was 7.4031 million as of the 2017 census, 366,769 of whom resided in the urban area. The Ezhou – Huanggang built-up (or metro) area was home to 1,035,496 inhabitants comprising (Echeng district and Huangzhou district of Huanggang). In 2007, the city is named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.[3]

History

Xugongmai Bronze Fu. Spring and Autumn period. Excavated at Weijia Pavilion Village, Yuwangcheng, Huangzhou.

In 845 BC Marquis Wen 文侯 Huang Meng 黃孟 (aka Huang Zhang 黃璋) moved the capital of the State of Huang from Yicheng to Huangchuan (present-day Huangchuan, Henan). Huang Xi's descendants ruled State of Huang until 648 BC when it was destroyed by the State of Chu. The Marquis of Huang, Marquis Mu 穆侯 Huang Qisheng 黃企生, fled to the state of Qi. The people of Huang were forced to relocate to Chu. They settled in the region of present-day Hubei province, in a region known as the Jiangxia Prefecture 江夏郡 during the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). There are many places in this region today that were named after Huang e.g. Huanggang, Huangpi, Huangmei, Huangshi, Huangan, Huangzhou etc. A large number of the people of Huang were also relocated to regions south of the Yangtze River. During the reign of Emperor Cheng of Jin, Later Zhao forces inflicted great damage on many Jin cities and bases north of the Yangtze and captured Zhucheng (邾城, in modern Huanggang, Hubei). Huanggang has a history of at least 2,000 years.[1]

Administration

Huanggang administers 12 county-level divisions, including 1 districts, 2 county-level cities and 7 counties:[4][5][1]

# Name Chinese (S)
Counties
1 Hong'an County 红安
2 Luotian County 罗田
3 Yingshan County 英山
4 Xishui County Xi River 浠水
5 Qichun County 蕲春
6 Huangmei County Yellow Plum 黄梅
7 Tuanfeng County 团风
County-level cities
8 Wuxue City 武穴
9 Macheng City 麻城
District
10 Huangzhou District 黄州
Other Areas
11 Longganhu Administrative District 龙感湖管理区
12 Huanggang Economonic Development Area 黄冈经济开发区
Map

Cultural heritage

Huanggang is home to several significant cultural sites of historical interest, such as the Buddhist Ancestral Hall of Sakyamuni at Doufang Mountain, Wuzu Temple and its Changchun Nunnery, and Dongpo Red Cliff.[citation needed]

Education

Huanggang is the home of Huanggang Middle School, one of the most prestigious secondary schools in China. The school is especially well known for its smart and diligent students. It has consistently excellent records in China's National Higher Education Entrance Examination and International Science Olympiad. Students from Huanggang Middle School have won 25 medals in The International Mathematical Olympiad, International Physics Olympiad and International Chemistry Olympiad. Textbooks and course materials edited by faculty from this school are widely recognized and popular across the country, making Huanggang High School a national brand. Huanggang Normal University is a full-time institution of higher education located in the city of Huanggang.

Economy

Huanggang has a diversified economy, ranging from bio- and herbal medicine to manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism. Since ancient times, Huanggang has been renowned for local specialties such as the "Qichun Four Treasures" (snake, turtle, bamboo, and moxa), Huangmei "tiaohua" embroidery, and Wuxue "zhangshuiqian" bamboo products. Today, Huanggang at large is recognized for organic vegetables. With its "Guihuaxiang" brand of chestnuts, Luotian is the leading chestnut-growing county in all of China. Yingshan is famous for its "cloud mist" green tea. Qichun, of course, is famous for herbal medicine. Macheng is a national model county for cattle breeding. Huangmei is a major center of freshwater shrimp and fragrant jade rice production. And Hong'an peanut production ranks the first in Hubei Province.[citation needed]

Transportation

Huanggang enjoys an excellent transportation infrastructure. Wuhan airport is only 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the west, while Jiujiang Airport in Jiangxi to the east is only 160 kilometres (99 mi) away. Being on the Yangtze River, Wuhan main port is within 80 kilometres (50 mi) and Huangzhou District has a small bulk-handling port. There is an extensive road network, with three north-south and seven east-west major roads within the main city area. The city also is served by several new expressways, including the north-south "Jingzhu" (Beijing to Zhuhai, Guangdong) expressway and the east-west Wuhan to Shanghai expressway. Huanggang also is on the main north-south "Jingjiu" (Beijing to Hong Kong) and "Jingguang" (Beijing to Guangzhou, Guangdong) railway lines.[citation needed]

Bridges

The Edong Bridge over the Yangtze River

Two bridges connect Huanggang across the Yangtze to the Ezhou on the south bank of the river:

Other river crossings near Huanggang include:

Rail

Huanggang is served by the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, which has several stations within the prefecture-level city. The Huangzhou Station, located within Huangzhou District some 20 km (12 mi) northeast from downtown Huanggang, has the best service of all, with several trains a day to Beijing, Nanchang, and Shenzhen.[6] Huanggang travelers can also use the Huangshi station on the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway, across the river.[citation needed]

Famous people

Huanggang prefecture is the birthplace of numerous famous Chinese inventors, scientists, and scholars, including:

  • Bi Sheng, the inventor of movable type printing;
  • Cheng Yi, ancient idealist philosopher;
  • Dong Biwu, Acting President of the People's Republic of China, 1972-1975;
  • Li Shizhen, herbalist and author of the ancient medical classic Compendium of Materia Medica;
  • Li Siguang, ecologist;
  • Lin Biao, one of the ten marshals in China;[7]
  • Wen Yiduo, patriotic poet;
  • Xiong Shili, a 20th-century Chinese philosopher;
  • Daman Hongren, the 5th Chán (Buddhist) Patriarch in the traditional lineage of Chinese Chan;
  • Xu Fuguan, a Chinese historian and philosopher, notable for Confucian studies;
  • Hu Feng, a Chinese writer and literary and art theorist;
  • Chu Bong-Foo, the inventor of the Cangjie method, the most widely available Chinese input method, and the father of the modern Chinese computing;
  • Huang Kan, a Chinese philologist.

As well, Huanggang is famous for producing military and political leaders. Hong'an County is known as the "County of Generals" in that more than 400 Chinese army generals have been born there, a total far greater than for any other county in all of China. In addition, former military leader and President of China, Li Xiannian (1909–1992), was born in Hong'an. The family of Taiwanese author Kuo Cheng came from Huanggang.[8]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d 辭海第六版 [Cihai (Sixth Edition)]. Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. p. 957. ISBN 9787532628599.
  2. ^ [www.citypopulation.de]
  3. ^ "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn. Hunan Loudi Official Government. 2012-03-28. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  4. ^ 黄冈概况 (in Chinese). Huanggang People's Government. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 现辖七县(红安、罗田、英山、浠水、蕲春、黄梅、团风)、二市(武穴、麻城),黄州区、龙感湖管理区和黄冈经济开发区,{...}
  5. ^ 黄冈市历史沿革 [Historical Development of Huanggang City] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 2010年第六次人口普查,黄冈市常住总人口6162069人,其中:黄州区366769人,团风县338609人,红安县602148人,罗田县544650人,英山县357296人,浠水县872649人,蕲春县727805人,黄梅县858806人,麻城市849090人,武穴市644247人。
  6. ^ 黄州列车时刻表 [Huangzhou Station Schedule]., as compared to that for the neighboring stations: 浠水,蕲春,武穴
  7. ^ Lin 164
  8. ^ 郭箏 [Kuo Cheng]. 2007台灣作家作品目錄 (in Chinese). Retrieved 22 October 2019. 籍貫: 湖北黃岡

Bibliography

  • Lin Biao. "Lin Piao: Master Strategist". In Snow, Helen Foster (Ed.). The Chinese Communists: Sketches and Autobiographies of the Old Guard. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwoods Publishing Company. 1972. ISBN 0-8371-6321-8

External links