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Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978. The ideology is named after Enver Hoxha, a notable Albanian communist leader.
Hoxhaism demarcates itself by a strict defense of the legacy of Joseph Stalin, the organisation of the Soviet Union under Stalinism, and fierce criticism of virtually all other communist groupings as "revisionist"—it defines currents such as Eurocommunism as anti-communist movements.
Critical of the United States, the Soviet Union, China and Yugoslavia, Enver Hoxha labeled the latter three "social imperialist" and condemned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, before withdrawing Albania from the Warsaw Pact in response. Hoxhaism asserts the right of nations to pursue socialism by different paths, dictated by the conditions in that country—although Hoxha personally held that Titoism was in practice "anti-Marxist" overall.
The Albanians succeeded in ideologically winning over a large share of Maoists, mainly in Latin America (such as the Popular Liberation Army and Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador as well as the Revolutionary Communist Party of Brazil), but they also had a significant international following in general.
Following the fall of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in 1991, the Hoxhaist parties grouped themselves around an international conference founded in 1994 and the publication Unity and Struggle.