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History of LGBTQ in journalism

The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) journalism history.

19th century

20th century

1901–1909

1910s

  • 1913 – The word faggot is first used in print in reference to gays in a vocabulary of criminal slang published in Portland, Oregon: "All the fagots [sic] (sissies) will be dressed in drag at the ball tonight".
  • 1919 – In Berlin, Germany, Doctor Magnus Hirschfeld co-founds the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sex Research), a pioneering private research institute and counseling office. Its library of thousands of books was destroyed by Nazis in May 1933.[3][4][5]
  • 1919Different From the Others, one of the first explicitly gay films, is released. Magnus Hirschfeld has a cameo in the film and partially funded its production.
  • 1919 Die Freundschaft is established, an LGBT-magazine which causes soon people throughout Germany getting united and organized

1920s

  • 1924 Die Freundin is established, world's first lesbian magazine
  • 1926 Frauenliebe is established, world's second lesbian magazine
  • 1926 Die BIF is established, the world's first lesbian magazine run solely by women, edited by Selli Engler
  • 1926 – The New York Times is the first major publication to use the word "homosexuality".

1930s

  • 1932 - the first swiss LGBT-periodical is established, Das Freundschaftsbanner. In 1942 it changes its title to Der Kreis
  • 1938 – The word gay is used for the first time on film in reference to homosexuality.[6]
  • 1939 – Frances V. Rummell, an educator and a teacher of French at Stephens College, published an autobiography under the title Diana: A Strange Autobiography; it was the first explicitly lesbian autobiography in which two women end up happily together.[7] This autobiography was published with a note saying, "The publishers wish it expressly understood that this is a true story, the first of its kind ever offered to the general reading public".[7]

1940s

  • 1940 - the first dutch LGBT periodical ist established, Levensrecht. Due to the German occupation it has to pause after its first issue until 1946 and then continues until 1948.
  • 1947 – Vice Versa, the first North American lesbian publication, is written and self-published by Lisa Ben (real name Edith Eyde) and distributed in Los Angeles.

1950s

  • 1952 – In Japan the male homosexual magazine "Adonis" is launched with the writer Mishima Yukio as a contributor.
  • 1956The Ladder, the first nationally distributed Lesbian publication in the United States, begins publication. It continues until 1970.
  • 1957 – Homoerotic artist Tom of Finland first published on the cover of Physique Pictorial magazine from Los Angeles.[8]
  • 1958 – The United States Supreme Court rules in favor of the First Amendment rights of a gay and lesbian magazine, marking the first time the United States Supreme Court had ruled on a case involving homosexuality.

1960s

  • 1964 – Canada sees its first gay-positive organization, ASK, and first gay magazines: ASK Newsletter (in Vancouver), and Gay (by Gay Publishing Company of Toronto). Gay was the first periodical to use the term 'Gay' in the title and expanded quickly, including outstripping the distribution of American publications under the name Gay International. These were quickly followed by Two (by Gayboy (later Kamp) Publishing Company of Toronto).[9][10]
  • 1964 – The first photograph of lesbians on the cover of lesbian magazine The Ladder was done in September 1964, showing two women from the back, on a beach looking out to sea.
  • 1965 – Everett George Klippert, the last person imprisoned in Canada for homosexuality, is arrested for private, consensual sex with men. After being assessed "incurably homosexual", he is sentenced to an indefinite "preventive detention" as a dangerous sexual offender. This was considered by many Canadians to be extremely homophobic, and prompted sympathetic articles in Maclean's and The Toronto Star, eventually leading to increased calls for legal reform in Canada which passed in 1969.[11]
  • 1966 – The first lesbian to appear on the cover of the lesbian magazine The Ladder with her face showing was Lilli Vincenz in January 1966.[12]
  • 1967 – The Advocate was first published in September as "The Los Angeles Advocate," a local newsletter alerting gay men to police raids in Los Angeles gay bars.
  • 1967 – The book Homosexual Behavior Among Males by Wainwright Churchill breaks ground as a scientific study approaching homosexuality as a fact of life and introduces the term "homoerotophobia", a possible precursor to "homophobia"; The Oscar Wilde Bookshop, the world's first homosexual-oriented bookstore, opens in New York City;[13]

1970s

  • 1971-The first issue of Lesbian Tide, a magazine created by younger, more radical members of the Daughters of Bilitis, is published, and continues until 1980.[14][15]
  • 1972 – A Quaker group, the Committee of Friends on Bisexuality, issued the "Ithaca Statement on Bisexuality" supporting bisexuals.[16] The Statement, which may have been "the first public declaration of the bisexual movement" and "was certainly the first statement on bisexuality issued by an American religious assembly," appeared in the Quaker Friends Journal and The Advocate in 1972.[17][18]
  • 1974 – Elaine Noble becomes the second openly gay American elected to public office when she wins a seat in the Massachusetts State House; Inspired by Noble, Minnesota state legislator Allan Spear comes out in a newspaper interview; the Brunswick Four are arrested on 5 January 1974, in Toronto, Ontario. This incident of Lesbophobia galvanizes the Toronto Lesbian and Gay community;[19] Also in 1974, the Lesbian Herstory Archives opened to the public in the New York apartment of lesbian couple Joan Nestle and Deborah Edel; it has the world's largest collection of materials by and about lesbians and their communities.[20]
  • 1975 – UK journal Gay Left begins publication;[21]
  • 1976Conditions: "a feminist magazine of writing by women with a particular emphasis on writing by lesbians", is founded in New York and features writing by Audre Lorde, Adrienne Rich, Paula Gunn Allen and others.[22]
  • 1976 – Lesbian magazine Sinister Wisdom begins publication in the United States, and becomes the longest running lesbian literary magazine in the country[23][24]
  • 1977 – Welsh author Jeffrey Weeks publishes Coming Out;[25]
    Original eight-color version of the LGBT pride flag
    Publication of the first issue of Gaysweek, NYC's first mainstream gay weekly.

1980s

1990

1994

  • Susan Stryker's essay "My Words to Victor Frankenstein Above the Village of Chamounix" became the first article to be published in a peer-reviewed academic journal by an openly transgender author.[30]

1996

  • The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association launched the Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, the world's first peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary journal dedicated to LGBT health.

1999

See also

References

  1. ^ Marc Vargo. Scandal: infamous gay controversies of the twentieth century Routledge, 2003. pp 165–7.
  2. ^ Steakley, James D. (revised 1989). "Iconography of a Scandal: Political Cartoons and the Eulenburg Affair in Wilhelmin Germany", Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay & Lesbian Past (1990), Duberman, et al., eds. New York: Meridian, New American Library, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-452-01067-5.
  3. ^ Susanne Jäger. "hirschfeld.in-berlin.de, The first Institute for Sexual Science". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  4. ^ Famous GLBT & GLBTI People - Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld stonewallsociety
  5. ^ Atina Grossmann. Reforming Sex. Oxford University Press, 1995. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  6. ^ "The First Time "Gay", Meaning "Homosexual", Was Used as Such in a Film". todayifoundout.com. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  7. ^ a b History Detectives . Investigations – Diana. PBS. Retrieved on 30 November 2010.
  8. ^ Hooven III, F. Valentine (2012). Tom of Finland: Life and Work of a Gay Hero. Berlin: Bruno Gmünder Verlag GmbH. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-3-86787-166-2.
  9. ^ McLeod, Donald W. A Brief History of Gay: Canada's First Gay Tabloid, 1964–1966.
  10. ^ "Our Silver Anniversary: Canadians have been organizing for twenty five years!". Newsletter of the Canadian Gay Archives. National Archives for Lesbians and Gay Men. 7. June 1989.
  11. ^ "Man imprisoned for being gay to get posthumous pardon from Trudeau". CBC News. 28 February 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  12. ^ Faderman, Lillian and Timmons, Stuart (2006). Gay L.A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02288-X.
  13. ^ "Wilde Times". NYMag.com. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  14. ^ name=out>Clendinen, Dudley; Nagourney, Dudley (2001). "In Our Mothers' Names". Out For Good: The Struggle to Build a Gay Rights Movement in America. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684867434.
  15. ^ Pomerleau, Clark A. (2010). "Empowering Members, Not Overpowering Them: The National Organization for Women, Calls for Lesbian Inclusion, and California Influence, 1960s–1980s". Journal of Homosexuality. 57 (7): 842–861. doi:10.1080/00918369.2010.493414.
  16. ^ "BiMedia | Bisexual News & Opinion from". BiMedia.org. 2012-02-10. Archived from the original on 2015-10-15. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
  17. ^ Donaldson, Stephen (1995). "The Bisexual Movement's Beginnings in the 70s: A Personal Retrospective". In Tucker, Naomi (ed.). Bisexual Politics: Theories, Queries, & Visions. New York: Harrington Park Press. pp. 31–45. ISBN 1-56023-869-0.
  18. ^ Martin, Robert (1972-08-02). "Quakers 'come out' at conference". The Advocate (91): 8.
  19. ^ Warner, Tom. ‘’Never Going Back: A History of Queer Activism in Canada’’, 2002 University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-8460-5 p41
  20. ^ The Lesbian Herstory Archives. The Lesbian Herstory Archives. Retrieved on 30 November 2010.
  21. ^ [1] Archived 14 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Busia, Abena P. A. Theorizing Black Feminisms: The Visionary Pragmatism of Black Women, Routledge, 1993, ISBN 0-415-07336-7, p. 225n.
  23. ^ Nelson, Emmanuel S. (2009-07-14). Encyclopedia of Contemporary LGBTQ Literature of the United States. ABC-CLIO. p. 203. ISBN 9780313348600.
  24. ^ J ulie Enszler, "Sinister Wisdom and the Legacy of Adrienne Rich", Huffington Post, March 7, 2014
  25. ^ Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain from the Nineteenth Century to the Present, Quartet Books 1977; 2nd revised edition, with new chapter and bibliography, 1990
  26. ^ Randy Shilts at Queer Theory Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2007-01-03
  27. ^ Patrick Califia, "Raising Cane", Out, August 1999, Vol. 8, No. 2, p.32
  28. ^ "OUT & OUTRAGED Non-Violent Civil Disobedience at the U.S. Supreme Court" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-05. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  29. ^ "1990: NLGJA Founded: A Look Back". nlgja.org. NLGJA. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  30. ^ Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women. New York [u.a.]: Routledge. 2000. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-415-92088-9.
  31. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (11 September 2004). "Bishop Says Conflict on Gays Distracts From Vital Issues". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
    Rocker, Simon (26 February 2005). "Judaism and the gay dilemma". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 November 2011. Neroulias, Nicole (7 July 2010). "An Interview With Rabbi Steven Greenberg: Orthodox And Gay". Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
    Merwin, Ted (19 July 2011). "Gay And Orthodox, According To Jon Marans". The Jewish Week. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  32. ^ "100 Orthodox Rabbis Issue Same Sex Marriage Declaration". algemeiner.com. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2013.