This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh
State
Dhankar lake.jpg
Hidimba Devi Temple - North-east View - Manali 2014-05-11 2648-2649.TIF
Himachal Pradesh seal.svg
Seal
Himachal Pradesh
Location in India
State map
State map
Coordinates (Shimla): 31°6′12″N 77°10′20″E / 31.10333°N 77.17222°E / 31.10333; 77.17222
State  India
Statehood 25 January 1971
Capitals Shimla
Dharamshala (Second Capital in Winter)
12 Districts
Government
 • Governor Acharya Dev Vrat[1]
 • Chief Justice Justice Sanjay Karol (Acting)
 • Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral[2] (68 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 4
Area
 • Total 55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi)
Area rank 18th[3]
Population (2011)[4]
 • Total 6,864,602
 • Rank 21st
 • Density 123/km2 (320/sq mi)
Language
 • Official Hindi[5]
 • Additional official English[5]
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-HP
HDI Increase 0.6701 (medium)
HDI rank 2nd (2015)[6]
Literacy 83.78%[7]
Website www.himachal.nic.in
It was elevated to the status of state by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970

Himachal Pradesh ([ɦɪmaːtʃəl prəd̪eːʃ] (About this sound listen); literally "snow-laden province") is an Indian state located in North India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is bordered by states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west, Haryana on the southwest, Uttarakhand on the southeast, and the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east. At its southernmost point, it also touches the state of Uttar Pradesh. The state's name was coined from the SanskritHim means 'snow' and achal means 'land' or 'abode'—by acharya Diwakar Datt Sharma, one of the state's eminent Sanskrit scholars.[8]

The state is spread across valleys.[9] About 90% of the state's population lives in rural areas.[10] Many perennial rivers flow in the state with numerous hydropower plants producing surplus electricity that is sold to other states, such as Delhi, Punjab and West Bengal.[11] Tourism and agriculture are also important constituents of the state's economy.[11] The state has one of the highest per-capita incomes among the Indian states and union territories.[12]

Shimla district has the largest urban population in the state at 25%. The villages have good connectivity with roads, public health centres, and high-speed broadband. Practically all houses have a toilet and 100% hygiene has been achieved in the state.[13] Notable actions by the state government include a ban on polyethylene bags[14] and tobacco products.[15] According to a survey of CMS - India Corruption Study 2017, Himachal Pradesh is India's least corrupt state.[16][17]

History

The history of the area that now constitutes Himachal Pradesh dates to the Indus valley civilisation that flourished between 2250 and 1750 BCE.[18] Tribes such as the Koili, Hali, Dagi, Dhaugri, Dasa, Khasa, Kinnar, and Kirat inhabited the region from the prehistoric era.[19]

During the Vedic period, several small republics known as Janapada existed which were later conquered by the Gupta Empire. After a brief period of supremacy by King Harshavardhana, the region was divided into several local powers headed by chieftains, including some Rajput principalities. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by Delhi Sultanate a number of times.[18] Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 10th century. Timur and Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles.[18] Several hill states acknowledged Mughal suzerainty and paid regular tribute to the Mughals.[20]

Sansar Chand (c. 1765–1823)

The Kingdom of Gorkha conquered many kingdoms and came to power in Nepal in 1768.[18] They consolidated their military power and began to expand their territory.[18] Gradually, the Kingdom of Nepal annexed Sirmour and Shimla. Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra. They managed to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. However, the Nepali army could not capture Kangra fort which came under Maharaja Ranjeet Singh in 1809. After the defeat, they began to expand towards the south of the state. However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846,[18] during the First Anglo-Sikh War.

They came into direct conflict with the British along the tarai belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the Satluj.[18] The British gradually emerged as the paramount power in the region.[18] In the revolt of 1857, or first Indian war of independence, arising from a number of grievances against the British,[18] the people of the hill states were not as politically active as were those in other parts of the country.[18] They and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive.[18] Some, including the rulers of Chamba, Bilaspur, Bhagal and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt.

Rock Cut Temple, Masroor

The British territories came under the British Crown after Queen Victoria's proclamation of 1858. The states of Chamba, Mandi and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule.[18] During World War I, virtually all rulers of the hill states remained loyal and contributed to the British war effort, both in the form of men and materials. Among these were the states of Kangra, Jaswan, Datarpur, Guler, Rajgarh, Nurpur, Chamba, Suket, Mandi, and Bilaspur.[18]

After independence, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh was organized on 15 April 1948 as a result of integration of 28 petty princely states (including feudal princes and zaildars) in the promontories of the western Himalayas. These were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh (Administration) Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947 (later renamed as the Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1947 vide A.O. of 1950). The State of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954 by the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur (New State) Act, 1954.[21]

Himachal became a Part 'C' state on 26 January 1950 with the implementation of the Constitution of India and the Lieutenant Governor was appointed. The Legislative Assembly was elected in 1952. Himachal Pradesh became a union territory on 1 November 1956.[18] Some areas of Punjab State— namely Simla, Kangra, Kullu and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh tehsil of Ambala District, Lohara, Amb and Una kanungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una tehsil of Hoshiarpur District, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur District—were merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 November 1966 on enactment by Parliament of Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.[21] On 18 December 1970, the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament, and the new state came into being on 25 January 1971. Himachal became the 18th state of the Indian Union with Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar as its first chief minister.[18]

Geography and climate

Himachal is in the western Himalayas. Covering an area of 55,673 square kilometres (21,495 sq mi),[3] it is a mountainous state. Most of the state lies on the foothills of the Dhauladhar Range. At 6,816 m Reo Purgyil is the highest mountain peak in the state of Himachal Pradesh.[22]

The drainage system of Himachal is composed both of rivers and glaciers. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain. Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Indus and Ganges basins.[23] The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej, and the Yamuna. These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation.[23]

Due to extreme variation in elevation, great variation occurs in the climatic conditions of Himachal. The climate varies from hot and subhumid tropical in the southern tracts to, with more elevation, cold, alpine, and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges.[24] The state's winter capital, Dharamsala receives very heavy rainfall, while areas like Lahaul and Spiti are cold and almost rainless. Broadly, Himachal experiences three seasons: summer, winter, and rainy season. Summer lasts from mid-April till the end of June and most parts become very hot (except in the alpine zone which experiences a mild summer) with the average temperature ranging from 28 to 32 °C (82 to 90 °F). Winter lasts from late November till mid March. Snowfall is common in alpine tracts (generally above 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) i.e. in the higher and trans-Himalayan region).

Flora and fauna

Asian paradise flycatcher in Kullu

Himachal Pradesh is one of the states that lies in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), one of the richest reservoirs of biological diversity in the world. The IHR is currently undergoing large scale irrational extraction of wild, medicinal herbs, thus endangering many of its high-value gene stock. To address this, a workshop on ‘Endangered Medicinal Plant Species in Himachal Pradesh’ was held in 2002 and the conference was attended by forty experts from diverse disciplines.[25]

Black Bulbul (Hypsipetes leucocephalus). Solan (Himachal Pradesh). 28-July-2013

According to 2003 Forest Survey of India report, legally defined forest areas constitute 66.52% of the area of Himachal Pradesh.[26] Vegetation in the state is dictated by elevation and precipitation. The state endows with a high diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants.[27] Lahaul-Spiti region of the state, being a cold desert, supports unique plants of medicinal value including Ferula jaeschkeana, Hyoscyamus niger, Lancea tibetica, and Saussurea bracteata.[28][29]

Himachal is also said to be the fruit bowl of the country,[30] with orchards being widespread. Meadows and pastures are also seen clinging to steep slopes. After the winter season, the hillsides and orchards bloom with wild flowers, while gladiolas, carnations, marigolds,[31] roses, chrysanthemums, tulips and lilies are carefully cultivated. Himachal Pradesh Horticultural Produce Marketing and Processing Corporation Ltd. (HPMC) is a state body that markets fresh and processed fruits.[32]

Himachal Pradesh has around 463 bird[33] 77 mammalian, 44 reptile and 80 fish species.[34] Great Himalayan National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and Pin Valley National Park are the national Parks located in the state.[34][35] The state also has 30 wildlife sanctuaries and 3 conservation reserves.[35]

Government

Town Hall in Shimla

The Legislative Assembly of Himachal Pradesh has no pre-Constitution history. The State itself is a post-Independence creation. It came into being as a centrally administered territory on 15 April 1948 from the integration of thirty erstwhile princely states.[36]

Himachal Pradesh is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. The legislature consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The judiciary is composed of the Himachal Pradesh High Court and a system of lower courts. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly is unicameral with 68 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA).[37] Terms of office run for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.

In the assembly elections held in November 2017, the BJP secured an absolute majority. The BJP won 44 of the 68 seats while the Congress won only 21 of the 68 seats. Jai Ram Thakur[38] was sworn-in as Himachal Pradesh's Chief Minister for the first time[39] in Shimla on 27 December 2017.

Administrative divisions

The state of Himachal Pradesh is divided into 12 districts[40] which are grouped into three divisions, Shimla, Kangra and Mandi.[41] The districts are further divided into 69 subdivisions, 78 blocks and 145 Tehsils.[40]

Divisions Districts[42]
Kangra Chamba, Kangra, Una
Mandi Bilaspur, Hamirpur, Kullu, Lahaul and Spiti, Mandi
Shimla Kinnaur, Shimla, Sirmaur, Solan
Administrative Structure[43]
Divisions 3
Districts 12
Tehsils/ Sub-Tehsils 169
Developmental Blocks 78
Urban Local Bodies 49
Towns 59
Gram Panchayats 3226
Villages 20690
Police Stations 127
Lok Sabha Seats 4[44]
Rajya Sabha Seats 3
Assembly Constituencies 68[44]

Economy

Shimla, the capital of Himachal Pradesh. Shimla Montage - Clockwise from top: Skyline at Shimla Southern Side, Indian Institute of Advanced Studies formerly(Viceregal Lodge, Rashtrapati Niwas), Town hall, Night view of Shimla and Christ Church.
Gross State Domestic Product at Current Prices
figures in crores of Indian Rupees
Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 794
1985 1,372
1990 2,815
1995 6,698
2000 13,590
2005 23,024
2006 25,435
2010 57,452
2013 82,585
2014 92,589
2015 101,108
2016 110,511[45]
2017 124,570[46]
2018 135,914[47]

The era of planning in Himachal Pradesh started in 1951 along with the rest of India with the implementation of the first five-year plan. The First Plan allocated 52.7 million to Himachal Pradesh.[48] More than 50% of this expenditure was incurred on transport and communication; while the power sector got a share of just 4.6%, though it had steadily increased to 7% by the Third Plan.[49] Expenditure on agriculture and allied activities increased from 14.4% in the First Plan to 32% in the Third Plan, showing a progressive decline afterwards from 24% in the Fourth Plan to less than 10% in the Tenth Plan.[49] Expenditure on energy sector was 24.2% of the total in the Tenth Plan.[49] The total GDP for 2005-06 was estimated at 254 billion as against 230 billion in the year 2004–05, showing an increase of 10.5%.[50] The GDP for fiscal 2015-16 was estimated at 1.110 trillion recording an annual growth of 7.7%.[45] As per the advance estimates for fiscal 2016-17, the state's GDP increased to 1.247 trillion.[46] The per capita incomes for fiscal years 2015-16 and 2016-17 were estimated at 130,067 and 147,277 respectively.[45][46] The state government's advance estimates for fiscal 2017-18 stated the total GDP and per capita income as 1.359 trillion and 158,462 respectively.[47] Himachal now ranks one of the highest among the states and union territories of India in terms of per capita income.

Himachal Pradesh also ranks as the second best performing state in the country on human development indicators after Kerala.[6] One of the Indian government's key initiatives to tackle unemployment is the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). The participation of women in the NREGA has been observed to vary across different regions of the nation. As of the year 2009-2010, Himachal Pradesh joined the category of high female participation, recording a 46% share of NREGS (National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme) work days to women. This was a drastic increase from the 13% that was recorded in 2006-2007.[51]

Agriculture

Himalayas from Kullu Valley

Agriculture contributes about 9.4% to the net state domestic product.[52] It is the main source of income and employment in Himachal. About 90% of the population in Himachal depends directly upon agriculture, which provides direct employment to 62% of total workers of state.[52] The main cereals grown include wheat, maize, rice and barley with major cropping systems being maize-wheat, rice-wheat and maize-potato-wheat.[53][54] Pulses, fruits, vegetables and oilseeds are among the other crops grown in the state.[53] Land husbandry initiatives such as the Mid-Himalayan Watershed Development Project, which includes the Himachal Pradesh Reforestation Project (HPRP), the world's largest clean development mechanism (CDM) undertaking, have improved agricultural yields and productivity, and raised rural household incomes.[55]

Apple is the principal cash crop of the state grown principally in the districts of Shimla, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Chamba and some parts of Sirmaur and Lahaul-Spiti with an average annual production of 5 lakh tonnes and per hectare production of 8 to 10 tonnes.[56] The apple cultivation constitute 49 per cent of the total area under fruit crops and 85% of total fruit production in the state with an estimated economy of 3500 crore.[56] Apples from Himachal are exported to other Indian states and even other countries.[57][58] In 2011-12, the total area under apple cultivation was 1.04 lakh hectares, increased from 90,347 hectares in 2000-01.[58] According to the provisional estimates of Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, the annual apple production in Himachal for fiscal 2015-16 stood at 7.53 lakh tonnes, making it India's second largest apple producing state after Jammu and Kashmir.[59]

Energy

Hydropower is also one of the major sources of income generation for the state.[60] The state has an abundance of Hydropower resources because of the presence of various perennial rivers. Many high capacity projects are being constructed to capitalize on this. In addition, the rich hydropower resources of Himachal have resulted in the state becoming almost universally electrified with around 94.8% houses receiving electricity as of 2001, as compared to the national average of 55.9%.[61] The income generated from exporting the electricity to other states is being provided as subsidy to the consumers in the state.[61] Himachal's hydro-electric power production is however yet to be fully utilized.[62] The identified Hydroelectric Potential for the state is 27,436 MW in five river basins[11] and the annual hydroelectricity production in 2016 was 10,351 MW.[62]

Tourism

Kalpa in June 2015.

Tourism in Himachal Pradesh is a major contributor to the state's economy and growth. The mountainous state with its Himalayan landscapes attracts tourists from all over the world. Hill stations like Shimla, Manali, Dharamshala, Dalhousie, Chamba, Khajjiar, Kullu and Kasauli are popular destinations for both domestic and foreign tourists.[63] The state also has many important Hindu pilgrimage sites with prominent temples like Naina Devi Temple, Vajreshwari Devi Temple, Jwala Ji Temple, Chintpurni, Chamunda Devi Temple, Baijnath Temple, Bhimakali Temple, Bijli Mahadev and Jakhoo Temple.[64] Manimahesh Lake situated in the Bharmour region of Chamba district is the venue of an annual Hindu pilgrimage trek held in the month of August which attracts lakhs of devotees.[65] The state is also referred to as "Dev Bhoomi" (literally meaning Abode of Gods) due to its mention as such in ancient Hindu texts and occurrence of a large number of historical temples in the state.[66]

Triund is a campsite for travellers and trekkers on the way to Indrahar Pass, Dhauladhar Mountain Range.

It is also called the Land of the Gods on account of the Hindu belief that deities like Lord Shiva considered the Himalayas their abode, and much of the state is located among the Himalayan mountains. Although modern pop-literature writers online have often also referred to Uttarakhand as the land of the gods because it also contains Himalayan mountains, officially it is Himachal Pradesh that has been considered the land of the gods since before the state of Uttarakhand existed (the UK as it is abbreviated on license plates for automobiles in the state, and the state was founded in the year 2000).[67] A tourism department board on the road when entering Himachal Pradesh from the state of Punjab states "Welcome to the Land of the Gods."

The state is also known for its adventure tourism activities like ice skating in Shimla, paragliding in Bir Billing and Solang valley, rafting in Kullu, skiing in Manali, boating in Bilaspur and trekking, horse riding and fishing in different parts in the state.[68] Shimla, the state's capital, is home to Asia's only natural ice skating rink.[69] Spiti Valley in Lahaul & Spiti District situated at an altitude of over 3000 metres with its picturesque landscapes is an important destination for adventure seekers. The region also has some of the oldest Buddhist Monasteries in Asia.[70]

Himachal hosted the first Paragliding World Cup in India from 24 October to 31 October in 2015.[71][72] Venue for paragliding world cup was Bir Billing, which is 70 km from the tourist town Macleod Ganj, located in the heart of Himachal in Kangra District. Bir Billing is the centre for aero sports in Himachal and considered as best for paragliding.[71] Buddhist monasteries, trekking to tribal villages, mountain biking are other activities to do here.

Transport

Air

Himachal has three domestic airports in Kangra, Kullu and Shimla districts.[73] The air routes connect the state with Delhi and Chandigarh.

Railway

Himachal is known for its narrow-gauge railways. One is the Kalka-Shimla Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and another is the Pathankot-Jogindernagar line.[74] The total length of these two tracks is 259 kilometres (161 mi). The Kalka-Shimla Railway passes through many tunnels, while the Pathankot–Jogindernagar meanders through a maze of hills and valleys. The state also has broad-gauge railway track, which connects Amb and Una (district headquarters of Una district) to Delhi. A survey is being conducted to extend this railway line to Hamirpur.[75] The total route length of the operational railway network in the state is 296.26 kilometres (184.09 mi).[76] Other proposed railways in the state are Dharamsala-Palampur, Baddi-Chandigarh and Bilaspur-Manali-Leh.[77][78]

Road

Roads are the major mode of transport in the hilly terrains. The state has road network of 28,208 kilometres (17,528 mi),[79] including eight National Highways (NH) that constitute 1,234 kilometres (767 mi) and 19 State Highways with a total length of 1,625 kilometres (1,010 mi).[79] Hamirpur district has the highest road density in the country.[80] Some roads get closed during winter and monsoon seasons due to snow and landslides. The state-owned Himachal Road Transport Corporation with a fleet of over 3,100,[81] operates bus services connecting important cities and towns with the villages within the state and also on various interstate routes. In addition, around 3,000 private buses run by various operators also ply in the state.[82]

Demographics

Population

Himachal Pradesh has a total population of 6,864,602 including 3,481,873 males and 3,382,729 females as per the final results of the Census of India 2011. This is only 0.57 per cent of India's total population, recording a growth of 12.81 per cent.[4][83] The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes account for 25.19 per cent and 5.71 per cent of the population respectively.[85] The sex ratio stood at 972 females per 1000 males, recording a marginal increase from 968 in 2001.[86] The child sex ratio increased from 896 in 2001 to 909 in 2011.[86] The total fertility rate (TFR) per woman in 2015 stood at 1.7, one of the lowest in India.[87]

In the census, the state is placed 21st on the population chart, followed by Tripura at 22nd place.[88] Kangra district was top ranked with a population strength of 1,507,223 (21.98%), Mandi district 999,518 (14.58%), Shimla district 813,384 (11.86%), Solan district 576,670 (8.41%), Sirmaur district 530,164 (7.73%), Una district 521,057 (7.60%), Chamba district 518,844 (7.57%), Hamirpur district 454,293 (6.63%), Kullu district 437,474 (6.38%), Bilaspur district 382,056 (5.57%), Kinnaur district 84,298 (1.23%) and Lahaul Spiti 31,528 (0.46%).[89]

The life expectancy at birth in Himachal Pradesh increased significantly from 52.6 years in the period from 1970-75 (above the national average of 49.7 years) to 72.0 years for the period 2011-15 (above the national average of 68.3 years).[90] The infant mortality rate stood at 40 in 2010, and the crude birth rate has declined from 37.3 in 1971 to 16.9 in 2010, below the national average of 26.5 in 1998. The crude death rate was 6.9 in 2010.[91] Himachal Pradesh's literacy rate has almost doubled between 1981 and 2011 (see table to right). The state is one of the most literate states of India with a literacy rate of 83.78% as of 2011.[7]

Languages

Languages of Himachal Pradesh (2001)[92]

  Hindi (89.01%)
  Punjabi (5.99%)
  Nepali (1.16%)
  Kinnauri (1.06%)
  Others (2.78%)

Hindi is the official language of Himachal Pradesh and is spoken by the majority of the population as a lingua franca. English is given the status of an additional official language.[5] Most of the languages spoken natively belong to the group of the Himachali languages. According to the 2001 Census of India, the languages spoken in the state in descending order of native speakers are Hindi, spoken by 89.01% of the population (including Himachali languages as dialects of Hindi); followed by Punjabi (5.99%), Nepali (1.16%) and Kinnauri (1.06%).[5]

Religion

Religion in Himachal Pradesh (2011)[93]

  Hinduism (95.17%)
  Islam (2.18%)
  Sikhism (1.16%)
  Buddhism (1.15%)
  Christianity (0.18%)
  Jainism (0.03%)
  Other or none (0.2%)

Hinduism is the major religion in Himachal Pradesh. More than 95% of the total population adheres to the Hindu faith, the distribution of which is evenly spread throughout the state.[94] Himachal Pradesh has the highest proportion of Hindu population among all the states and union territories in India.[95]

Other religions that form a small percentage are Islam, Sikhism and Buddhism. Muslims are mainly concentrated in Sirmaur, Chamba, Una and Solan districts where they form 2.53-6.27% of the population.[94] Sikhs mostly live in towns and cities and constitute 1.16% of the state population. The Buddhists, who constitute 1.15%, are mainly natives and tribals from Lahaul and Spiti, where they form a majority of 62%, and Kinnaur, where they form 21.5%.[94]

Culture

Traditional home, Manali
Nako Village

Himachal Pradesh was one of the few states that had remained largely untouched by external customs, largely due to its difficult terrain. With remarkable economic and social advancements, the state has changed very rapidly.[96] Himachal Pradesh is a multireligious, multicultural as well as a multilingual state like other Indian states. Western Pahari languages also known as Himachali languages are widely spoken in the state. Some of the most commonly spoken individual languages are Kangri, Mandeali, Kulvi, Chambeali, Bharmauri and Kinnauri.[97] The Hindu communities residing in Himachal include the Brahmins, Rajputs, Kayasthas, Sunars, Kannets, Rathis and Kolis.[98] The tribal population of the state consists mainly of Gaddis, Gujjars, Kanauras, Pangwalas, Bhots, Swanglas and Lahaulas.[98][99]

Himachal is well known for its handicrafts. The carpets, leather works, Kullu shawls, Kangra paintings, Chamba Rumals, stoles, embroidered grass footwear (Pullan chappal), silver jewelry, metal-ware, knitted woolen socks, Pattoo, basketry of cane and bamboo (Wicker and Rattan) and woodwork are among the notable ones.[100][101][102] Of late, the demand for these handicrafts has increased within and outside the country.[101] Himachali caps of various colour bands are also well-known art work of the local people, and are often treated as a symbol of the Himachali identity.[103] The colour of the Himachali caps has been an indicator of political loyalties in the hill state for a long period of time with Congress party leaders like Virbhadra Singh always donning caps with green band and the rival BJP leader Prem Kumar Dhumal always wearing a cap with maroon band.[104][105] The former has served six terms as the Chief Minister of the state while the latter is a two-time Chief Minister.[106] Local music and dance also reflects the cultural identity of the state. Through their dance and music, the Himachali people entreat their gods during local festivals and other special occasions.[107]

Apart from the fairs and festivals that are celebrated all over India, there are number of other fairs and festivals, including the temple fairs in nearly every region that are of great significance to Himachal Pradesh.[107][108] The Kullu Dussehra festival is very famous all over India.[109] The day to day cuisine of Himachalis is very similar to the rest of the north India with a significant influence of Punjabi and Tibetan cuisines.[110] Lentils (Dāl), rice (Chāwal or Bhāț), vegetables (Sabzī) and chapati (wheat flatbread) form the staple food of the local population.[110] As compared to other states in north India, non-vegetarian food is more preferred and accepted in Himachal Pradesh, partly owing to difficulty in finding a variety of fresh vegetables on the hilly terrain of the state.[111] Some of the local specialities of Himachali cuisine include Siddu, Babru, Khatta, Mhanee, Channa Madra, Patrode, Mah Ki Dal, Chamba Style Fried Fish, Kullu Trout, Chha Gosht, Pahadi Chicken, Sepu Badi, Auriya Kaddu, Aloo Palda, Pateer, Makki Ki Roti and Sarson Ka Saag, Chouck, Bhagjery and Chutney of Til.[111][112]

Notable people

Kalachakra Temple in the main street of Mcleod Ganj

Education

Indira Gandhi Medical College and Hospital at Shimla
Indian Institute of Advanced Study at Shimla

At the time of Independence, Himachal Pradesh had a literacy rate of 8% - one of the lowest in the country.[114] By 2011, the literacy rate surged to over 82%,[4] making Himachal one of the most literate states in the country. There are over 10,000 primary schools, 1,000 secondary schools and more than 1,300 high schools in the state.[115] In meeting the constitutional obligation to make primary education compulsory, Himachal became the first state in India to make elementary education accessible to every child.[116] Although gender bias in education levels is a prominent issue all over India, Himachal Pradesh is one of the exceptions.[117] The state has a female literacy rate of around 76%.[118] In addition, school enrollment and participation rates for girls are almost universal at the primary level. While higher levels of education do reflect a gender based disparity, Himachal is still significantly ahead of other states at bridging the gap.[119] The Hamirpur District in particular stands out for high literacy rates across all metrics of measurement.[120]

The state government has played an instrumental role in the rise of literacy in the state by spending a significant proportion of the state's GDP on education. During the first six five-year plans, most of the development expenditure in education sector was utilized in quantitative expansion, but after the seventh five-year-plan the state government switched emphasis on qualitative improvement and modernisation of education.[114] In an effort to raise the number of teaching staff at primary schools they appointed over 1000 teacher aids through the Vidya Upasak Yojna in 2001.[114] The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is another HP government initiative that not only aims for universal elementary education but also encourages communities to engage in the management of schools.[121] The Rashtriya Madhayamic Shiksha Abhiyan launched in 2009, is a similar scheme but focuses on improving access to quality secondary education.[121]

The standard of education in the state has reached a considerably high level as compared to other states in India[120] with several reputed educational institutes for higher studies. The Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Indian Institute of Management Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh University in Shimla, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, Indian Institute of Information Technology Una, Alakh Prakash Goyal University and Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technologies are some of the notable universities in the state. Indira Gandhi Medical College and Hospital in Shimla, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College in Kangra, Rajiv Gandhi Government Post Graduate Ayurvedic College in Paprola and Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital in Kumarhatti are the prominent medical institutes in the state. Besides these, there is a Government Dental College in Shimla which is the state's first recognised dental institute.[122] The state government has also decided to start three major nursing colleges to develop the healthcare system of the state.[123] CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalya Palampur is one of the most renowned hill agriculture institutes in the world. Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry has earned a unique distinction in India for imparting teaching, research and extension education in horticulture, forestry and allied disciplines. Further, state-run Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College was inaugurated in 2006 at Sundernagar.[123] Himachal Pradesh also hosts a campus of the prestigious fashion college, National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in Kangra.

Industry

State profile

Kalpa, a typical town in Himachal Pradesh
Sunrise in Himachal Pradesh, at Kinnaur Kailash
Sunshine on a snowy mountain at Himachal Pradesh
Snowy mountain range appears to be in sky

Source: Department of Information and Public Relations.[124]

Area 55,673 km2
Total population 6,864,602[125]
Males 3,481,873[126]
Females 3,382,729[126]
Population density 123
Sex ratio 972[88]
Rural population 6,176,050[125]
Urban population 688,552[125]
Scheduled Caste population 1,729,252
Scheduled Tribe population 392,126
Literacy rate 83.78%[126]
Male literacy 90.83%[126]
Female literacy 76.60%[126]
Capitals 2
Districts 12
Sub-divisions 62
Tehsils 149
Sub-tehsils 35
Developmental blocks 78
Towns 59
Panchayats 3,226
Panchayat smities 77
Zila parishad 12
Urban local bodies 49
Nagar nigams 2
Nagar parishads 25
Nagar panchayats 23
Census villages 20,690
Inhabited villages 17,495
Health institutions 3,866
Educational institutions 17,000
Motorable roads 33,722 km
National highways 8
Identified hydroelectric potential 23,000.43 MW in five rivers basins i.e. (Yamuna, Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Himurja)
Potential harnessed 10,264 MW[45]
Food grain production 1579,000 tonnes
Vegetable production 900,000 tonnes
Fruit production 1,027,000 tonnes
Per capita income 158,462 (2017–18)[47]
Social Security pensions 237,250 persons, annual expenditure: over 600 million
Investment in industrial areas 273.80 billion, employment opportunities: Over 337,391
Employment generated in government sector 80,000

Census 2011-

Largest District (km²) (1) Lahul and Spiti 13841 (2) Chamba 6522 (3) Kinnaur 6401 (4) Kangra 5739 (5) Kullu 5503

Highest Percentage of Child Population (1) Chamba 13.55% (2) Sirmaur 13.14% (3) Solan 11.74% (4) Kullu 11.52% (5) Una 11.36%

Highest Density (1) Hamirpur 407 (2) Una 338 (3) Bilaspur 327 (4) Solan 300 (5) Kangra 263

Top Population Growth (1) Una 16.26% (2) Solan 15.93% (3) Sirmaur 15.54% (4) Kullu 14.76% (5) Kangra 12.77%

Highest Literacy (1) Hamirpur 100% (2) Una 87.23% (3) Kangra 86.49% (4) Blaspur 85.87% (5) Solan 85.02%

Highest Sex Ratio (1) Hamirpur 1050 (2) Kangra 1012 (3) Mandi 1007 (4) Chamba 986 (5) Bilaspur 981

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Kalyan Singh takes oath as Governor of Himachal Pradesh". The Economic Times. 28 January 2015. 
  2. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Vidhan Sabha". Hpvidhansabha.nic.in. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Statistical Facts about India, indianmirror.com, retrieved 26 October 2006 
  4. ^ a b c "Himachal Pradesh Profile" (PDF). Census of India. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 33–34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Kundu, Tadit (17 December 2015). "Why Kerala is like Maldives and Uttar Pradesh, Pakistan". Live Mint. Retrieved 2 May 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c "Census 2011, Chapter 6 (State of Literacy), p.14" (PDF). Government of India. 
  8. ^ "HIMACHAL PRADESH GLIMPS". Laureate it. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  9. ^ "Famous Valleys in Himachal Pradesh". Discovered India. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "In Himachal, where 90 per cent people live in villages, female literacy rate touches 80 per cent". India Today. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c "While others sweat, Himachal struggles to sell its surplus power". Hindustan Times. 5 August 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  12. ^ "Per Capita Income". Press Information Bureau. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017. 
  13. ^ Soutik Biswas (16 March 2012). "Is India's lack of toilets a cultural problem?". BBC News. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  14. ^ "Himachal imposes complete ban on polythene bags". Deccan Herald. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  15. ^ "Himachal bans chewing tobacco products from today". Shimla: The Hindu Business Line. PTI. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2018. 
  16. ^ "HP least corrupt state: CMS-India study". The Times of India. 30 April 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  17. ^ "Corruption on decline in India; Karnataka ranked most corrupt, Himachal Pradesh least: Survey". Zee News. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "History of Himachal Pradesh". National informatics center, Himachal Pradesh. Archived from the original on 2006-11-21. Retrieved 31 March 2008. 
  19. ^ Bhatt, SC; Bhargava, Gopal (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories Vol. X. Kalpaz publications. p. 2. ISBN 81-7835-366-0. 
  20. ^ Verma 1995, pp. 28–35, Historical Perspective.
  21. ^ a b Verma 1995, pp. 239-254, Territorial Gains.
  22. ^ "Reo Purgyil, 6816 m". 
  23. ^ a b "Rivers in Himachal Pradesh". Suni Systems (P). Retrieved 28 April 2006. 
  24. ^ "Climate of Himachal Pradesh". himachalpradesh.us. Retrieved 26 October 2006. 
  25. ^ Aldam, C (10 October 2002). "Endangered medicinal plant species in Himachal Pradesh". Current Science Association. 83: 797. 
  26. ^ Himachal Pradesh Forest Department. "The Forests". National Informatics Center, Himachal Pradesh. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 3 April 2008. 
  27. ^ Kala, C.P. (2002) Medicinal Plants of Indian Trans-Himalaya: Focus on Tibetan Use of Medicinal Resources. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India. 200 pp.
  28. ^ Kala, C.P. (2000) Status and conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants in the Indian trans-Himalaya. Biological Conservation, 93 (3): 371-379.
  29. ^ Kala, C.P. (2005) Health traditions of Buddhist community and role of amchis in trans-Himalayan region of India. Current Science, 89 (8): 1331-1338.
  30. ^ Anand Bodh (10 August 2017). "Himachal initiates rs 1134 crore horticultural developmental project". Shimla: The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  31. ^ "In Himachal Pradesh Striking gold with marigold". The Indian Express. 2 July 2004. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2011. 
  32. ^ "About HPMC". HPMC. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  33. ^ Goutam Pal, Dipak K S, Indusnettechnologies. "Wild Life: Himachal Pradesh Forest Department". 
  34. ^ a b "Wildlife in Himachal Pradesh". Tour my India. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  35. ^ a b "Protected Area Network". Himachal Pradesh Forest Department. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  36. ^ "Himachal Pradesh (gov) Introduction". National informatics center. Computer Centre, Lok Sabha Secretariat. Retrieved 3 May 2007. 
  37. ^ "Legislative Assembly". Legislative Bodies in India. National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 28 October 2006. 
  38. ^ "Who is Jairam Thakur – front runner for Himachal Pradesh CM post after Prem Kumar Dhumal's shock defeat". The Financial Express. 2017-12-19. Retrieved 2017-12-23. 
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  40. ^ a b "Himachal Pradesh at a Glance". Official Website of Himachal Pradesh. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  41. ^ "DIVISIONAL COMMISSIONER, Kangra Division, Dharamshala". Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  42. ^ "State of Himachal Pradesh At a Glance" (PDF). Department of Land Records, Government of Himachal Pradesh. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  43. ^ "H.P. At A Glance". Information and Public Relations, Government of Himachal Pradesh. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  44. ^ a b "MAP (Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies of HP)". Chief Electoral Officer, Himachal Pradesh. 
  45. ^ a b c d "Economic Survey projects Himachal Pradesh's growth rate at 7.7% - Times of India". Retrieved 2016-09-02. 
  46. ^ a b c "Growth rate for Himachal Pradesh estimated at 6.8%". The Times of India. 11 March 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  47. ^ a b c "Final English Budget Speech for 2018-19" (PDF). Finance Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh. p. 7. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  48. ^ "An Overview of Planning in Himachal Pradesh" (PDF). Planning Department, Himachal Pradesh. pp. 31–40. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  49. ^ a b c "Himachal Pradesh: A Profile, Economic Development" (PDF). Planning Commission (India). p. 14. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  50. ^ "Current GDP". H. K. Dua, The Tribune House. Retrieved 23 May 2007. 
  51. ^ Sudarshan.M, Ratna (January 2011). "India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act: women's participation and impacts in Himachal Pradesh, Kerala and Rajasthan". Center for Social Protection Report. 6. 
  52. ^ a b "Economic Survey: 2016-17" (PDF). Official Website of Irrigation and Public Health Department, Himachal Pradesh. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  53. ^ a b H.R. Sharma. "Crop Diversification in Himachal Pradesh: Patterns, Determinants and Challenges" (PDF). India International Centre. p. 7. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  54. ^ "State specific files, Chapter 57: Himachal Pradesh". Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  55. ^ "$37 Million Additional Financing for Himachal Pradesh Mid Himalayan Watershed Development Project, India – 18000 Farmer Households to Benefit". Worldbank.org. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  56. ^ a b Kanwar Yogendra (3 August 2015). "Apple season begins in Himachal Pradesh". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  57. ^ "APPLE". National Horticulture Board. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  58. ^ a b "Himachal Pradesh headed for good Apple crop this year". Business Today. 19 October 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  59. ^ "Production of Apple Increases by About 36% in 2015-16". Press Information Bureau. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  60. ^ "Independence Day-2013 Speech by Virbhadra Singh". shimlatimes.in. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  61. ^ a b "Emerging energy scenario in Western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh". Energy Policy. 38 (5): 2545–2551. 2010-05-01. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.01.002. ISSN 0301-4215. 
  62. ^ a b "Himachal's mega 100 Mw hydro power project to be commissioned this month". Shimla: The Economic Times. IANS. 9 May 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2018. 
  63. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tourism". India Tourism. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  64. ^ "Temples of Himachal Pradesh". Maps of India. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  65. ^ Gopal Puri (20 August 2017). "Historic pilgrimage trek to Himalayas concludes, five dead". Dharamshala: The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  66. ^ "Himachal Pradesh: Dev Bhoomi, The Land of Gods". Sanskriti Magazine. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  67. ^ [igrms.gov.in]
  68. ^ "Adventure Destinations". Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation, Government of Himachal Pradesh. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  69. ^ "Ice-skating rink completes 100 sessions again". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India. Retrieved 11 February 2001. 
  70. ^ "Top 15 Places To Visit In Himachal Pradesh". Trans India Travels. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  71. ^ a b "Paragliding World Cup 2015 will be held in India: All you need to know". India Today. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  72. ^ "India hosts the first ever Paragliding World Cup". Red Bull. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  73. ^ Lalit Mohan (1 April 2018). "Airfares to Dharamsala skyrocket this weekend". Dharamshala: The Tribune. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  74. ^ Mail Today (3 May 2016). "Kangra's narrow gauge rail corridor is all set to get heritage status". India Today. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  75. ^ TNN (27 September 2017). "Complete Una-Hamirpur rail line survey within 6 months: Anurag". Shimla: The Times of India. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  76. ^ "Statewise Length of Railway Lines and Survey For New Railway Lines". Press Information Bureau, Ministry of Railways (India), Government of India. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  77. ^ "'Work on Chandigarh-Baddi railway line to start soon'". Shimla: The Statesman. Statesman News Service. 11 March 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018. 
  78. ^ Siddharatha Tiwari (5 September 2016). "With eye on China, India begins work on Himachal-Ladakh rail link". New Delhi: India Today. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  79. ^ a b "Himachal Pradesh: Infrastructure". Public Private Partnerships in India. Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Archived from the original on 2010-02-07. Retrieved 6 April 2008. 
  80. ^ "Hamirpur road density". Hari Jaisingh, Published from The Tribune House. Retrieved 22 May 2007. 
  81. ^ "White Paper on purchase of fleet of buses". Shimla: The Tribune (Chandigarh). Tribune News Service. 13 March 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  82. ^ "Himachal private bus operators seek hike in fare". Shimla: Business Standard. IANS. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  83. ^ a b "Census 2011:Population size and Decadal change" (PDF). Census of India. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  84. ^ "India at a glance". Census of India. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  85. ^ "STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF HIMACHAL PRADESH 2015-16: I – AREA AND POPULATION- Table 1.17 and 1.18, XIII – EDUCATION- Table 13.07" (PDF). Official site of Government of Himachal Pradesh. pp. 35, 36, 87, 88. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  86. ^ a b "Sex Ratio in India". Census 2011 India. Retrieved 5 May 2018. 
  87. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Youth status report: Sex ratio up but total fertility rate declining". Shimla: The Indian Express. Express News Service. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  88. ^ a b "States Census 2011". Census 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  89. ^ "Indian Districts by Population, Sex Ratio, Literacy 2011 Census". Census 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  90. ^ "ABRIDGED LIFE TABLES- 2011-15" (PDF). Census of India. p. 6. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  91. ^ "Highlights of Himachal Pradesh HDR (2002)" (PDF). Government of Himachal Pradesh (2002), Himachal Pradesh Human Development Report 2002, Government of Himachal Pradesh, pp. 40. Retrieved 26 May 2007. 
  92. ^ "50th REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2017. 
  93. ^ "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. 
  94. ^ a b c "Himachal Pradesh Districts - Religion 2011". Census2011. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  95. ^ "Hindu Religion Census 2011". Census2011. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  96. ^ "Himachal Pradesh: Secrets of Success". World Bank. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2018. 
  97. ^ "The people and tribes". www.123himachal.com. Retrieved 2007-05-20. 
  98. ^ a b "Culture of Himachal Pradesh". Indialine (2007). Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  99. ^ "CHAPTER 2: SCHEDULED AREAS AND SCHEDULED TRIBES OF HIMACHAL PRADESH" (PDF). Shodhganga. p. 2. Retrieved 26 April 2018. 
  100. ^ "Indian Crafts Map: Himachal Pradesh". Crafts Council of India. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  101. ^ a b Neetu Sharma, Promila Kanwar & Anju Rekha. "Traditional handicrafts and handloom of Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh" (PDF). NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  102. ^ "Himcrafts: H.P State Handicrafts and Handloom Corp. Ltd, Shimla". Himcrafts. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  103. ^ Shruti Verma (3 February 2018). "The Himachali cap: Culture, legacy and heritage". Himvani. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  104. ^ Archana Phull (14 January 2018). "Cap likely on 'cap politics' in Himachal Pradesh". The Statesman. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  105. ^ Gaurav Bisht (6 July 2017). "PM Modi's cap in Israel takes political hue in Himachal". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  106. ^ PTI (18 December 2017). "Prem Kumar Dhumal,Virbhadra Singh: Tale of two captains, their wins and losses". The Economic Times. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  107. ^ a b "Fair Festivals and Events of Himachal Pradesh". Maps of India. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  108. ^ "Fairs & Festivals of Himachal". Himachal Tourism. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  109. ^ "Kullu Dussehra, Kullu". Himachal Tourism. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  110. ^ a b "Himachal Pradesh Food and Cuisine". Maps of India. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  111. ^ a b NDTV Food (10 August 2016). "Himachal Pradesh Food: 10 Best Recipes". NDTV. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  112. ^ "Local and Traditional Himachali Foods and Dishes". Himachal Wonders. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  113. ^ "Minister of Commerce of India Anand Sharma to visit Finland, Embassy of Finland, Washington, Consulate Generals of Finland, New York, Los Angeles: Current Affairs: Ministry for Foreign Affairs News". Finland.org. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2011. 
  114. ^ a b c "Himachal Pradesh Development Report: Chapter 7 Education" (PDF). Planning Commission (India). p. 14. Retrieved 26 April 2018. 
  115. ^ "Factual source on Education in Himachal". Government of India. Archived from the original on 2007-04-30. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  116. ^ Dua, H.K. "Educational updates- Himachal". The Tribune Trust, 2006. The Tribune House. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  117. ^ De, Anuradha & Khera, Reetika & Samson, Meera & Shiva Kumar, A. K., 2011. "Probe Revisited: A Report on Elementary Education in India," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198071570.
  118. ^ Government of India. Census of India (2011)
  119. ^ Dreze, J. (May 1999). "A surprising exception. Himachal's success in promoting female education". Manushi (112): 12–17. ISSN 0257-7305. PMID 12295760. 
  120. ^ a b "Educational Profile of Himachal Pradesh". General Overview of Education in Himachal. Archived from the original on 2008-02-02. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  121. ^ a b "Himachal Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan & Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan". www.edumis.hp.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-04-26. 
  122. ^ "IGMC-home". Igmcshimla.org. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  123. ^ a b "Educational Profile of Himachal Pradesh". General Overview of Education in Himachal. Archived from the original on 2008-02-02. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  124. ^ "Himachal At A Glance". Himachalpr.gov.in. Archived from the original on 2013-08-16. Retrieved 15 June 2011. 
  125. ^ a b c "Himachal Pradesh Population Census data 2011". Census 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  126. ^ a b c d e "Provisional Population Totals" (PDF). Census of India. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 

References

External links

Government
General information