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Help:IPA/Turkmen

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents the Turkmen language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-tk}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

IPA Orthography English
approximation
b b about
d d ado
j jump
ð z then
ɸ f phew; or somewhat like food
ɡ[1] g ago
h h[2] home
j ý yet
k[1] k score
l l late
ɫ[1] l [3] peel ("dark L")
m m much
n n not
ŋ ň wing
p p span
q[1] k k in the throat
ɾ r AmE pretty or Scottish r
ʁ[1] g Uzbek or French r
ʃ ş shoe
t t stable
ts ts[4] bits
ç change
θ s think
β w like vase, but with both lips
x h[2] Scottish loch
ʒ ž leisure
Vowels
IPA Orthography English
approximation
ɑ a father
æ ä cat
ɛ e bed
ɪ i sick
o o Leo
œ ö somewhat like ] bird
ʊ u wood
ɯ y somewhat like roses, Chinese shi, or Japanese unchi
ʏ ü somewhat like cute
ʏː üý somewhat like cued
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples
ˈ Ahalteke [axalˈteke]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e [k]~[q] and [ɡ]~[ʁ][citation needed][contradictory], [l]~[ɫ] only contrast in loan words before back vowels; in native words, [k, ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels (/ɛ/, /i/, /œ/, /ʏ/), while [q, ʁ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/ɑ/, /o/, /ʊ/, /ɯ/).
  2. ^ a b [h] occurs before front vowels (/ɛ/, /ɪ/, /œ/, /æ/, and /ʏ/) while [x] occurs before back vowels (/ɑ/, /o/, /ʊ/, /ɯ/).
  3. ^ In Schöning, Claus (1998). "Turkmen". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic Languages. London: Routledge. p. 262. ISBN 0-415-08200-5.
  4. ^ Only found in Russian loanwords. In Schöning, Claus (1998). "Turkmen". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic Languages. London: Routledge. p. 261. ISBN 0-415-08200-5.