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The charts below show the way (both in Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi scripts) in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
b ب abash
p˦ بھ Tonal p
d [1] د ado
t˦ [1] دھ Tonal t̪
ɖ [1] ڈ guard
ʈ˦ [1] ڈھ Tonal ʈ
ج hedge
˦ جھ Tonal tʒ
f ਫ਼ ف food
ɡ گ agate
ɡʰ˦ گھ Tonal gʰ
ɦ ہ ahead
j ي yak
k ک scan
kʰ کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ - burner
ŋ - bank
p پ span
pʰ پھ pan
(often pronounced [f] in Punjabi)
q ਕ਼ ق a k in the throat
(Shamukhi; pronounced [k] in Gurmukhi)
ɾ ر US: better
ɽ ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ ੜ੍ਹ ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h
s س sue
ʃ ਸ਼ ش shoe
t [1] ت stable
tʰ [1] تھ table
ʈ [1] ٹ art
ʈʰ [1] ٹھ art-historian
چ catch
ʰ چھ choose
ʋ[2] و varies between w and v
x ਖ਼ خ Bach
(Shahmukhi; usually [kʰ] in Gurmukhi)
ɣ ਗ਼ غ like a French r
(Shahmukhi; usually [ɡ] in Gurmukhi). Close to uvular flap.
z ਜ਼ ز zen
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
ɑː ਆ, ਪਾ آ, ـا bra
ਏ, ਪੇ ے between yell and Yale
ɛː ਐ, ਪੈ yell
ə ਅ, ਪ ـَ nut
[3] ਈ, ਪੀ ی feet
ɪ [3] ਇ, ਪਿ ـِ dill
ਓ, ਪੋ و old
ɔː ਔ, ਪੌ dog
[3] ਊ, ਪੂ loot
ʊ [3] ਉ, ਪੁ ـُ look
 ̃ ں nasal vowel
([ãː], [õː], etc.)

ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h To an English ear, [t tʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d ɖ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Punjabi speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t d] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [tʰ d] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Punjabi [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Punjabi. Some words, such as vart ('ਵਰਤ', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('ਪਕਵਾਨ', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.