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Help:IPA/Marshallese

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Marshallese language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-mh}}, {{IPAc-mh}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Marshallese phonology for detailed discussion of the phonology of Marshallese.

Marshallese consonants
IPA Examples English approximations Notes
Allophones of /j/
ɛ̯ yarn
yes
you
Allophones of /k/
k cork Implicitly velarized ([kˠ]).
ɡ Pikinni gargle Between vowels. Implicitly velarized ([ɡˠ]).
Allophones of /kʷ/
Kuwajleen kook
ɡʷ google Between vowels.
kw Kwaron̄ quilt Simplified IPA for [kʷ(w)].
ɡw kwōj guano Between vowels. Simplified IPA for [ɡʷ(w)].
Allophones of /mˠ/
ajeļ marmalade
mw M̧weeņļap gym wear Simplified IPA for [mˠ(β̞ˠ)].
Allophones of /ŋʷ/
ŋʷ Roļap wrong way
ŋw Roļap wrong way Simplified IPA for [ŋʷ(w)].
Allophones of /pʲ/
Pikinni peep
Ep bib between vowels
Allophones of /pˠ/
Bokaak, bwil purpose
barber between vowels
pw Bokaak, bwil sleepwear Simplified IPA for [pˠ(β̞ˠ)].
bw Bokaak, bwil subway Between vowels. Simplified IPA for [bˠ(β̞ˠ)].
Allophones of /tʲ/
jouj meet you, church, bless you, shush
his yarn, pleasure, good year, judge Between vowels.
Allophones of /tˠ/
Ruot taught
tōm dud Between vowels.
Other single consonants
le leave (RP)
M̧aļoeļap bill Dark L ([ɫ]).
Jabtoļon̄e, Lo̧ļwe Galway, well wisher Rounded dark L ([ɫʷ]).
Mile meme
Epoon ninny
Arņo none
onward
ŋ aelō sung Implicitly velarized ([ŋˠ]).
Amedka N\A Trilled behind the front teeth, siimilar to Hungarian r.
Pikaar rat Trilled, without lip rounding.
Jo̧rwe, Nim̧ur roof Trilled, with lip rounding.
w weed
Consonant clusters
kk background Simplified [k̚.k ~ kː].
kkʷ black goose Simplified [k̚ʷ.kʷ ~ kʷː].
kkw Simplified [k̚ʷ.kʷ(w) ~ kʷː(w)].
llʲ Simplified [lʲ.lʲ ~ lʲː].
llˠ still life Simplified [lˠ.lˠ ~ lˠː].
llʷ Simplified [lʷ.lʷ ~ lʷː].
lrʲ N\A Simplified [lʲ.rʲ].
lrˠ bull ride Simplified [lˠ.rˠ].
lrʷ Simplified [lʷ.rʷ].
lʲtˠ melted
lˠtˠ ultimate
mbʲ embue Simplified [mʲ.bʲ].
mbˠ number Simplified [mˠ.bˠ].
mbw N\A Simplified [mˠ.bˠ(β̞ˠ)].
mmʲ swim meet Simplified [mʲ.mʲ ~ mʲː].
mmˠ Simplified [mˠ.mˠ ~ mˠː].
mmw Simplified [mˠ.mˠ(β̞ˠ) ~ mˠː(β̞ˠ)].
ndˠ under Simplified [nˠ.dˠ].
nlʲ only Simplified [nʲ.lʲ].
nlˠ unlike Simplified [nˠ.lˠ].
nlʷ onlooker Simplified [nʷ.lʷ].
nnʲ unneeded Simplified [nʲ.nʲ ~ nʲː].
nnʲ pen knife Simplified [nˠ.nˠ ~ nˠː].
nnʷ Simplified [nʷ.nʷ ~ nʷː].
nrʲ N\A Simplified [nʲ.rʲ].
nrˠ sunrise Simplified [nˠ.rˠ].
nrʷ Simplified [nʷ.rʷ].
nzʲ cleanser, ninja Simplified [nʲ.zʲ].
ŋɡ finger
ŋɡʷ mongoose Simplified [ŋʷ.ɡʷ].
ŋɡw penguin Simplified [ŋʷ.ɡʷ(w)].
ŋŋ N\A Simplified [ŋ.ŋ ~ ŋː].
ŋŋʷ N\A Simplified [ŋʷ.ŋʷ ~ ŋʷː].
ŋŋw Simplified [ŋʷ.ŋʷ(w) ~ ŋʷː(w)].
ppʲ upbeat Simplified [p̚ʲ.pʲ ~ pʲː].
ppˠ Simplified [p̚ˠ.pˠ ~ pˠː].
ppw N\A Simplified [p̚ˠ.pˠ(β̞ˠ) ~ pˠː(β̞ˠ)].
rlʲ N\A Simplified [rʲ.lʲ].
rlˠ car lot (rhotic accents) Simplified [rˠ.lˠ].
rlʷ Wate'rloo (rhotic accents) Simplified [rʷ.lʷ].
rrʲ Simplified [rʲ.rʲ ~ rʲː].
rrˠ Simplified [rˠ.rˠ ~ rˠː].
rrʷ Simplified [rʷ.rʷ ~ rʷː].
ttʲ chit-chat Simplified [t̚ʲ.tʲ ~ tʲː].
ttˠ outdo Simplified [t̚ˠ.tˠ].
Marshallese vowels
IPA Example English approximations Notes
Allophones of /æ/
æ jān trap Palatalized.
ɑ kab palm Velarized.
ɒ lot (RP), thought (GA) Rounded.
æ͜ɑ, æ͜ɒ, ɑ͜æ, ɑ͜ɒ, ɒ͜æ, ɒ͜ɑ Short diphthongs.
Allophones of /ɛ/
ɛ dress Palatalized.
ʌ nurse (RP), comma (GA) Velarized.
ɔ thought (RP), goat (GA) Rounded.
ɛ͜ʌ, ɛ͜ɔ, ʌ͜ɛ, ʌ͜ɔ, ɔ͜ɛ, ɔ͜ʌ Short diphthongs.
Allophones of /e/
e kit Palatalized.
ɤ like foot but without rounded lips Velarized.
o foot Rounded.
e͜ɤ, e͜o, ɤ͜e, ɤ͜o, o͜e, o͜ɤ Short diphthongs.
Allophones of /i/
i fleece Palatalized.
ɯ like goose but without rounded lips Velarized.
u goose Rounded.
i͜ɯ, i͜u, ɯ͜i, ɯ͜u, u͜i, u͜ɯ Short diphthongs.

Notes