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Help:IPA/Maltese

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Maltese language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Maltese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Maltese.

Consonants
IPA Example English approximation
b ballun boy
d dar duck
dz gazzetta pads
ġelat jail
f fwieħa four
ɡ gallettina game
h,ħ ħadem hat or Arabic ḥāʾ (ح)
j jum yes
k kelb scar
l,ɫ libsa look
m mara mole
n nadif no
p paġna spat
ɹ,r re real, better (American English)[1]
s saqaf sow
ʃ xadina shell
t tieqa stake
ts zokk sits
ċavetta chew
v vazun vet
w warda wall
z żaqq zoo
ʔ Luqa Cockney button; Hebrew aleph (א)
Vowels
IPA Example English approximation
a fatt cut
ɐː rani father
ɛ belt met
,ɨː dehra like we, but slightly darker
dik like bid, but longer,like some Irish like
ɪ wisa bit
ɨː wied need
ɔ moħħ off
sod core
mur pool
ʊ kuntratt look
ɜ˞ merħba * nurse
  • Speakers that realise r as /ɹ/ realise short e followed by r as /ɜ˞/ or /ə˞/
Diphthongs
IPA Example English approximation
aɪ̯ għajn ,għid light
eɪ̯ għid hate
oʊ̯/oː għum code
eʊ̯/øʊ̯/øː ewwel similar to code(RP English),eu/oeu in french
aʊ̯/ɑʊ̯ għawn how
oɪ̯ bojod boy
Unstresseds (some speakers)
IPA Example English approximation
ə intom (any unstressed vowel) minimum


Suprasegmentals
IPA Explanation
◌ˤ pharyngealised vowel
◌ː long vowel or geminate consonant;
consonants occur both long and short word-medially and word-finally
. syllable break
ˈ stress


Notes

  1. ^ The realization of the phoneme /r/ varies; some speakers pronounce it as an approximant [ɻ] virtually identical to that used for real in the western United States, while others pronounce it as a tap [ɾ], similar to the pronunciation of ⟨t⟩ and ⟨d⟩ between vowels in American and Australian English. When geminated, it may be pronounced as a lengthened approximant [ɻː], a tap [ɾ], or a trill [r].

References

  • Hume, Elizabeth (1996). "Coronal consonant, front vowel parallels in Maltese". Natural Language & Linguistic Theory. 14 (1): 163–203.