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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Judaeo-Spanish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

IPA Aki Yerushalayim Orthography Examples English approximation
b[1] b boz best
β[1][2] b arabo between baby and bevy
d[1] d dubio do
ð[1] d ladino this
dj djudio hedge
f f fazer fan
ɡ[1] g golor gate
ɣ[1] g grego roughly like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
k k kaji can
l l lonso leaf
m[3] m merkar much
n[3] n nono not
ɲ[3] ny anyada roughly like canyon
ŋ[3] n lingua sing
p p pishin pan
r[4] r, rr ridoma trilled r
ɾ[4] r para ladder (American English)
s s safaronya sue
ʃ sh shukur shoe
t t tanyer table
ch chapines choose
v v vava van
x h hazino Bach (German)
z z zor zoo
ʒ j fijo vision
IPA Aki Yerushalayim Orthography Examples English approximation
a a alhad father
e e echar bell
i i ishalla feel
o o otro law
u u uniko moon
IPA Aki Yerushalayim Orthography Examples English approximation
j y, i yelado yell
w u guardar wine
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ sivdad [sivˈðað] domain


  1. ^ a b c d e f Like in Spanish, /b/, /d/ and /ɡ/ are fricatives or approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ —after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ], similar to English b, d, g, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts.
  2. ^ Some speakers pronounce [β] as [v].
  3. ^ a b c d Like in Spanish, the nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Except in loanwords and proper nouns, only /n/ (that may also be produced as [ŋ] or nasalization of the preceding vowel, depending on dialect) occurs at the end of a word.
  4. ^ a b Like in Spanish, the rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.