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Help:IPA/Italian dialects

The charts below show the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) representations of Central and Tuscan Italian pronunciations.

Standard Italian phonemes, in bold, are followed by their most common phonetic values and their respective occurrence among dialects. Unless otherwise noted, unmentioned dialectal realizations are the same as for Standard Italian (e.g. Tuscan andando is [anˈdando], not [anˈnanno], and is therefore not listed below). Examples in the chart are spelled in Standard Italian.

The phonological processes described in the notes are normally valid at word boundaries, too.

Consonants[1] and semiconsonants
Phoneme Phones Examples Occurrence English approximation
b b orbo, base, sembrare all dialects base
libertà, una bibita Tuscany and easternmost Umbria
most non-Tuscan dialects[2] rib bone
m gamba, cambio Rome, areas of Marche and southern Umbria[3] mate
d d addentare, perdere all dialects date
l scaldare parts of Marche late
n andando, sindaco Rome, areas of Marche and southern Umbria[3] nose
dz[4] dz gazza, manzo all dialects[5] lads
Sergio, un giro all dialects jade
dːʒ logica, la gente most non-Tuscan dialects[2] mad joker
ʒ Tuscany and easternmost Umbria[6] leisure
f f figli, effetto, confondere all dialects fade
ɡ ɡ magro, agghindare all dialects game
j j maiali, chiave all dialects Yale
k ɡ ancora, in chiesa Sabina, Marche, Ciociaria, areas of Umbria[7] game
k palchi, accanto all dialects scale
amico, la cura southern Tuscany and Lazio[8] this game
h most of Tuscany and easternmost Umbria[8] hay
l l ala, bellezza all dialects lane
r
ɾ
soldi, molto Lazio, parts of Marche and southern Umbria letter (GA)
ʎ[4] j maglio, tigli Lazio vermilion or vermilion
ʎ other dialects
m m temperamento, ammirare all dialects main
n n annona, lancio all dialects[9] nine
ɲ con gnomi canyon
ŋ ingordo, ovunque ring
ɱ inverno, canfora comfit
m buon pasto, in modo tale main
ɲ[4] ɲ bagno, spegnere all dialects canyon
p b tempo, in piazza Sabina, Marche, Ciociaria, areas of Umbria[7] base
p pattini, arpa all dialects space
dopo, i pini southern Tuscany and Lazio[8] this base
ɸ most of Tuscany and easternmost Umbria[8] between fay and pay
r r
ɾ
cortometraggio, arrivo all dialects[10] letter (GA)
s s sospiro, anglosassone all dialects[11] same
ts insieme, perso rats
ʃ sospiro, anglosassone southern areas of Umbria and Marche shade
ʃ[4] conscia, cuscino all dialects
t d tarantola, in Toscana Sabina, Marche, Ciociaria, areas of Umbria[7] date
t costoletta, a Taranto all dialects state
ditata, la tavola southern Tuscany and Lazio[8] this date
θ most of Tuscany and easternmost Umbria[8] thane
ts[4] ts pazza, danzo, Lazio all dialects[5] rats
conceria Sabina, Marche, Ciociaria, areas of Umbria[7] jade
ciao, nel cielo all dialects[4][6] chap
ʃ cacio, ora di cena shade
v v cavallo, avremo all dialects vane
w w squallido, guardare all dialects waste
z z risma, bismuto all dialects laze
rosa, visivo Tuscany and easternmost Umbria
s most non-Tuscan dialects same
Stressed vowels and diphthongs[12]
Phoneme Phones Occurrence English approximation
a a all dialects father
e e all dialects fader
ɛ non-Tuscan dialects[13] feather
ɛ all dialects
e non-Tuscan dialects[13] fader
[14] je certain non-Tuscan dialects yet
jɛ other dialects
i i all dialects eat
o o all dialects awful (RP)
ɔ non-Tuscan dialects[13] off
ɔ all dialects
o non-Tuscan dialects[13] awful (RP)
[14] ɔ all dialects off
u u all dialects roof
Unstressed vowels
Phoneme Phones Occurrence English approximation
a a all dialects father
e e all dialects fader
i certain non-Tuscan dialects[15] eat
i all dialects
e certain non-Tuscan dialects[15] fader
o o all dialects awful (RP)
u Sabina, southern areas of Umbria and Marche[16] roof
u all dialects
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ primary stress indicator (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ secondary stress indicator (placed before the stressed syllable)
. syllable separation indicator
ː long vowel or geminated consonant indicator

Notes

  1. ^ Consonant length is phonemic, with dialects featuring syntactic gemination as well, though sometimes with a different occurrence from the standard outside Tuscany.
  2. ^ a b After a vowel, /b/ and dʒ/ are always geminated in all Central dialects.
  3. ^ a b In these dialects, (semi)vowel-preceding /mb/ and /nd/ undergo total progressive assimilation to [] and [], respectively.
  4. ^ a b c d e f As it is the standard, /dz/, /ts/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel; this means in such instances /ʃ/ and single /tʃ/ (realized as [ʃ]) are only distinguished by their length (e.g. pesce [ˈpeʃːe] vs pece [ˈpeːʃe]).
  5. ^ a b Though this is generally true for most words, /dz/ and /ts/ may not have the exact same distribution everywhere.
  6. ^ a b If preceded by a vowel, single /tʃ/ and (in Tuscany) /dʒ/ generally deaffricate.
  7. ^ a b c d In those places nasals trigger the voicing of certain following consonants.
  8. ^ a b c d e f In such areas, single /k/, /p/, /t/ lenite after a vowel, in Tuscany (in which such consonants, if geminated instead, might be slightly aspirated [], [], []) following a phenomenon known as Tuscan gorgia.
  9. ^ As in Standard Italian, assimilation to the following consonant always occurs for nasals.
  10. ^ In a few South Central dialects, chiefly Romanesco, geminated /rː/ is always a single flap [ɾ]: e.g. guera [ˈɡwɛːɾa] instead of guerra.
  11. ^ /s/ becomes an affricate in post-consonantal position, except after another /s/.
  12. ^ Stressed vowels tend to be realized as longer in a non-final open syllable.
  13. ^ a b c d Some non-Tuscan dialects may differ from the standard in the distribution of stressed close- and open-mid vowels in certain restricted cases (e.g. Tuscan attentamente [aˌtːɛntaˈmente], sarebbe [saˈɾɛbːe], sono [ˈsoːno] vs Marchigiano attentamente [aˌtːɛndaˈmɛnde], Romanesco sarebbe [saˈɾebːe], sono [ˈsɔːno]).
  14. ^ a b We refer here to /jɛ/ and /wɔ/ as resulting from diphthongization of Latin ĕ and ŏ, respectively (e.g. cuoco, from Latin coquus, or lieve, from levis); not to cases like sapiente, from Latin sapiens, or annacquò, third singular past historic of annacquare, whose pronunciation is the same as in Standard Italian for all dialects).
  15. ^ a b This change only occurs in a few monosyllables, e.g. Romanesco si te ce vedi [si tːe ʃe ˈveːdi] vs Standard se ti ci vedi [se tːi tʃi ˈveːdi].
  16. ^ Occurs word-finally in a few words, e.g. Marchigiano rosciu [ˈroʃːu] for Standard rosso [ˈrosːo].

External links

  • Vignuzzi, Ugo. "Italia mediana" [Central Italy]. Enciclopedia Treccani (in Italian).