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Help:IPA/Hejazi Arabic

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hejazi Arabic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-acw}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

The romanization of the examples is based on the romanization system used on Wiktionary.

See Hejazi Arabic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Urban Hejazi Arabic.

The sounds [θ], [ð] and [ðˤ] in addition to the foreign [v] and [p] marked by an asterisk* are not used by all speakers.

Consonants
IPA Arabic letter Example Romanization English approximation
ʔ ء, أ, إ, ؤ, ئ سَأَل saʼal uh-(ʔ)oh
ʕ ع عين ʿēn no equivalent
b ب بِنْت bint bike
d (ذ) د (ذيل) دُب[1] dubb (dēl or ēl) done
(ظ) ض (ظِفِر) ضَب[2] abb (ifir or ifir) emphatic /d/
[3] ج جَريدة jarīda job
ð* ذ ذَكَر[1] akar or dakar this
f ف فيل fīl fast
ɡ ق قَمَر gamar gas
h هـ هادي hādi hat
ħ ح حَر arr no equivalent
j ي يَد yadd yes
k ك كَلْب kalb cat
l ل لون lōn lip (clear l)
ɫ[4] الله allāh peel (dark l)
m م موية mōya mother
n ن نوم nōm nest
θ* ث ثَوَاب[5] awāb or tawāb think
r[3] ر راس rās trilled r
s (ث) س (ثابِت) سَرير[5] sarīr (sābit or ābit) sorry
ص صَبّار abbār emphatic /s/
ʃ ش شَمْس šams ship
t (ث) ة ,ت (ثوب) تَمُر[5] tamur (tōb or ōb) star
ط طير ēr emphatic /t/
w و وَرَقة waraga water
x خ خَس ass loch (Scottish)
ɣ غ غَريب arīb French r but softer
z (ذ) ز (ذَكي) زِر[1] zirr (zaki or aki) zebra
ظ ظَرْف[2] arf emphatic /z/
Notable Allophones
q[6] ق اِسْتِقْلال istiglāl {istiqlāl} no equivalent
ðˤ* ظ ظِل[2] ill or ill emphatic /ð/
Non-native Consonants[7]
p* پ پيتزا or بيتزا pītza or bītza put
v* ڤ ڤيروس or فيروس vayrūs or fayrūs view
Vowels
IPA Example Romanization English approximation
Monophthongs
a فَم famm father but shorter
ʊ حُب[8] ubb put (or like law)
u قَبُو gabu to
ɪ سِر[9] sirr sit (or like set)
i مَدْرِي madri happy
[10] نار nār father
نور nūr food
صوت ōt for
مين mīn need
بيت bēt hair
Diphthongs
aw دَوْري dawri how
aj لَيْمون laymūn tie
Suprasegmentals
IPA examples Explanation
ˈ يوم /ˈjoːm/ ("day") Indicates that the following syllable is stressed.
ː سَكِّينَة /sakˈkiːna/ ("knife") Indicates a long vowel or a geminate consonant.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c ذ⟩ represents /d/ as in ذيل /deːl/ & ذكر /dakar/ or /z/ as in ذكي /zaki/, but the classical phoneme /ð/ is still used as well depending on the speaker especially in words of English origin. check Hejazi Arabic phonology
  2. ^ a b c ظ⟩ represents /dˤ/ as in ظفر /dˤifir/ & ظل /dˤilː/ or /zˤ/ as in ظرف /zˤarf/, but the classical allophone [ðˤ] is still used as well depending on the speaker. check Hejazi Arabic phonology
  3. ^ a b the affricate /d͡ʒ/ج⟩ and the trill /r/ر⟩ are realised as a [ʒ] (English s in pleasure) and a tap [ɾ] respectively by a number of speakers or in a number of words.
  4. ^ The marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫɫaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, such as يلا /jaɫɫa/ "come on", they contrast in والله /waɫɫa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walla/ ('or').
  5. ^ a b c ث⟩ represents /t/ as in ثوب /toːb/ & ثواب /tawaːb/ or /s/ as in ثابت /saːbit/, but the classical phoneme /θ/ is still used as well depending on the speaker especially in words of English origin. check Hejazi Arabic phonology
  6. ^ [q] is an allophone of /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ and it occurs in a number of phrases and words due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic in the 20th century.
  7. ^ The phonemes /p/ and /v/ are only found in loanwords and they can be substituted by /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker
  8. ^ Word initial and medial /u/ is pronounced [ʊ] or less likely [o̞] depending on the word and speaker, but strictly pronounced [u] at the end of words, and before /w/. All are allophones of the phoneme /u/.
  9. ^ Word initial and medial /i/ is pronounced [ɪ] or less likely [e̞] depending on the word and speaker, but strictly pronounced [i] at the end of words, and before /j/. All are allophones of the phoneme /i/.
  10. ^ [ɑ] is an allophone for /aː/ and /a/ in some words such as ألمانيا [almɑːnja] ('Germany'), بابا [bɑːbɑ] ('dad') and يابان [jaːbɑːn] ('Japan').