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Help:IPA/Danish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-da}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Transcriptions in articles are primarily based on the "distinct form" set out in Brink et al. (1991). Stress, stød, and vowel length are frequently lost in actual running speech.

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Key

Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
ɑ tak [ˈtsʰɑk] art
ɑː rane [ˈʁɑːnə] father
ʌ ånd [ˈʌnˀ] somewhat like off
ɒ normal [nɒˈmɛˀl] off
ɒː kort [ˈkʰɒːt] dog
æ kat [ˈkʰæt] bat
æː græde [ˈkʁæːðə] bad
bed [ˈpe̝ð] ('garden plot') bit
e̝ː mene [ˈme̝ːnə] bid
e ven [ˈven], frisk [ˈfʁesk] bait
mæle [ˈmeːlə] bade
ɛ bær [ˈpɛɐ̯] bet
ɛː gade [ˈkɛːðə] bed
i tisse [ˈtsʰisə] beat
mile [ˈmiːlə] bead
o foto [ˈfoto] story, but short
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] story
ɔ ost [ˈɔst] ('cheese') somewhat like growth
ɔː måle [ˈmɔːlə] somewhat like grow
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] somewhat like hurt
øː løber [ˈløːpɐ] ('runner') somewhat like herd
œ bønne [ˈpœnə] somewhat like hurt
œː høne [ˈhœːnə] somewhat like herd
ɶ tør [ˈtsʰɶɐ̯ˀ] ('dry') somewhat like but
ɶː røre [ˈʁɶːɐ] somewhat like bud
u ud [ˈuðˀ] moot
hule [ˈhuːlə] mood
y tyk [ˈtsʰyk] somewhat like refute
synlig [ˈsyːnli] somewhat like feud
Unstressed-only
ə hoppe [ˈhʌpə] focus
ɐ løber [ˈløːpɐ] ('runner') coda
ð̩ malet [ˈmɛːlð̩][1] the book (pronounced quickly)
gammel [ˈkɑml̩][1] bottle
København [kʰøpm̩ˈhɑwˀn][1] rhythm
vinden [ˈve̝nˀn̩] ('the wind')[1] sudden
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœkŋ̍][1] Washington
Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
ɕ sjat [ˈɕæt] sheep
ð øde [ˈøːðə] bathe
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] fan
h hat [ˈhæt] heart
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ], mig [ˈmɑj] yawn
k god [ˈkoðˀ] scar
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] car
l lykke [ˈløkə] lake
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] man
n node [ˈnoːðə] nap
ŋ lang [ˈlɑŋˀ] ring
p bog [ˈpɔwˀ] spot
pol [ˈpʰoˀl] pot
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] French parler
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] soon
t dåb [ˈtɔˀp] start
tsʰ tak [ˈtsʰɑk] tart
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ] chin
v våd [ˈvɔðˀ] very
w hav [ˈhɑw] ('ocean') cow
Semivowel
ɐ̯ er [ˈɛɐ̯] near
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Description
ˈ  ˌ husmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯] Stress[2]
ˀ hun hund About this sound[ˈhun ˈhunˀ] Stød[3]

Comparison of transcription schemes

Transcriptions of Danish in linguistic and lexicographic literature deviate from the standard IPA in many aspects in order to dispense with diacritics and to maintain resemblance to the Dania transcription, which was influential in the development of Danish linguistics and maintains resemblance to Danish orthography. The conventions of this guide, on the other hand, seek adherence to standard IPA usage as much as possible, so that readers who are already familiar with the standard IPA would not have to look up or remember the value of each symbol in the Danish tradition.

WP Example Basbøll (2005) Den Danske Ordbog Grønnum (2005) Molbæk Hansen (1990) Brink et al. (1991) Politikens Nudansk Ordbog Narrow
tran-
scription[4]
Vowels
ɑ takke, sejle ɑ ɑ ɑ α α, α̇[5] α[5] [ɑ̈]
kræft æ ɑ̈ ä
ɑː trane, arne ɑː ɑː ɑː αː α·[5] α·[5] [ɑ̈ː]
ʌ måtte ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ɔ ɔ [ɒ̽]
ɒ vor ɒ ɒ ɒ ɔ å[6] år[7] [ɒ̝]
ɒː tårne ɒː ɒː ɒː ɔː å·[6] [ɒ̝ː]
æ malle a a a a ɑ a [æ]
række æ ɑ̈ ä [a]
æː græde ɑː[8] ɑ̈ð ä· [æː]
list e e e e e e []
e̝ː mele [e̝ː]
e læst ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ æ æ [e]
brist æ []
mæle, bære ɛː ɛː ɛː, æː[8] ɛː æ· æ· []
grene, kræse æː æ·, æᶖ[9] [e̞ː~e̞j]
ɛ bær æ æ æ æ ɑ̇ ä [ɛ]
ɛː male æː æː æː ɑ̇· [ɛː]
i mis i i i i i i [i]
mile []
o foto o o o o o o []
mole [o̝ː]
ɔ ost ɔ ɔ ɔ å ɑ̊ å [ɔ̽]
ɔː måle ɔː ɔː ɔː åː ɑ̊· å· [ɔ̽ː]
ø kys ø ø ø ø ø ø [ø]
øː køle øː øː øː øː ø· ø· [øː]
œ høns, grynt œ œ œ, œ̞[8] ö ö ö [œ̝]
œː høne, røbe œː œː œː, œ̞ː[8] öː ö· ö· [œ̝ː]
ɶ gør ɶ ɶ œ̞ ɔ̈ ɔ̈ ɔ̈ [œ]
grøn ɶ [ɶ̝]
ɶː gøre ɶː ɶː œ̞ː ɔ̈ː ɔ̈· ɔ̈· [œː]
u guld, brusk u u u, o[8] u u u [u]
mule, ruse uː, oː[8] []
y lyt y y y y y y [y]
kyle []
Unstressed-only
ə hoppe ə ə ə ə ə ə [ə]
ɐ fatter ɐ ʌ ɐ ʌ ɔ ɔ [ɒ̽]
ð̩ måned ð̩ əð ð̩ əð ð̩ əð [ð̩˕˗ˠ]
gammel əl əl əl [l̩]
hoppen ən ən ən [m̩]
hesten [n̩]
ŋ̍ pakken ŋ̩ ŋ̩ ŋ̩ [ŋ̍]
Consonants
ɕ sjat ɕ ɕ ɕ ʃ sj [ɕ]
ð mad ð ð ð ð ð ð [ð̠˕ˠ]
f fisk f f f f f f [f]
h hus h h h h h h [h]
j jul j j j j j j [j]
mig ɪ̯ [9]
k gås ɡ̊ ɡ ɡ̊ g ɡ g [k]
kål k k k k [kʰ]
l lås l l l l l l [l]
m mus m m m m m m [m]
n ni n n n n n n [n]
ŋ perron ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ [ŋ]
p bål b b b b [p]
pille p p p p [pʰ]
ʁ rose ʁ ʁ ʁ r r r [ʁ̞]
s sæl s s s s s s [s]
t dåse d d d d [t]
tsʰ taske t t t t [tsʰ]
tjene tˢj tj t͡ɕ tj tj tj []
v vams v v v v v v [ʋ]
w hav ʊ̯ w w w w w [w]
Semivowel
ɐ̯ smør ɐ̯ ɐ̯ ɐ̯ ʀ ɹ r [ɒ̯̽]
Stød
ˈtsʰiˀ ti ˈtˢiːˀ ˈtiˀ ˈtˢiːˀ ˈtiːʼ ˈtiʼ ˈtiʼ [ˈtsʰḭˑ]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e /əð, əl, ən/ become syllabic consonants [ð̩, l̩, m̩, n̩, ŋ̍] in a process known as schwa-assimilation ([m̩, ŋ̍] are variants of /ən/, assimilated to the place of the preceding consonant). The process also often affects /ə/ after a long vowel or /ð, j, l, n, v/, but these types of assimilation are not as ubiquitous as, and are more contextually constrained than, the aforementioned combinations (Basbøll 2005:293ff), so they are not reflected in transcription.
  2. ^ In Standard Copenhagen Danish, a stressed syllable has a lower pitch than the following unstressed syllable, which then has a high-falling pitch.
  3. ^ Stød can only occur after a long vowel or a sequence of a short vowel and [ð, j, l, m, n, ŋ, w, ɐ̯] in a stressed syllable, and is far more often realized as creaky voice (found in English as the vocal fry register; ⟨◌̰⟩ in standard IPA) than as a glottal stop [ʔ]. Phonologically long vowels with stød are shorter in realization, so they are transcribed as short in this guide (cf. pæn /ˈpɛːˀn/ [ˈpʰeˀn] 'nice', pen /ˈpɛnˀ/ [ˈpʰenˀ] 'pen').
  4. ^ Basbøll (2005).
  5. ^ a b c d Though indistinguishable in some fonts, ⟨α⟩ for [ɑ] is the italic Greek alpha, not the Latin alpha, ⟨ɑ⟩, which represents [æ] in Dania.
  6. ^ a b å⟩ for [ɒ] is oblique in print, but here shown in normal type because its italic form is indistinguishable from ⟨ɑ̊⟩, which represents [ɔ], in most serif fonts.
  7. ^ On Ordbogen.com, ⟨år⟩ represents [ɒː] when stressed and [ɒ] when unstressed.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Grønnum describes the speech of younger speakers than do other sources. This key follows the latter, which describe varieties where [æː, œ, œː, u, uː] can follow [ʁ] and [eː] can precede [ɐ].
  9. ^ a b In print, the rightward hook in ⟨⟩ extends directly from the stem of ⟨i⟩ (somewhat like ⟨ɭ̇⟩ but shorter).

References

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005). The Phonology of Danish. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-203-97876-5.
  • Brink, Lars; Lund, Jørn; Heger, Steffen; Jørgensen, J. Normann (1991). Den Store Danske Udtaleordbog. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. ISBN 87-16-06649-9.
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005). Fonetik og fonologi: almen og dansk (3rd ed.). Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag. ISBN 87-500-3865-6.
  • Molbæk Hansen, Peter (1990). Udtaleordbog. Copenhagen: Gyldendal. ISBN 978-87-02-05895-6.

External links