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Help:IPA/Armenian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Armenian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles, based on Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian standard varieties. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-hy}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants
IPA Orthography Examples English approximation
Eastern and Classical Armenian Western Armenian
b [1] բ պ բանալի (EA/C), պատ (WA) bee
d [1] դ տ դու (EA/C), տուն (WA) dog
dz [1] ձ ծ ձուկ (EA/C), ծիծաղ (WA) leads
[1] ջ ճ ջուր (EA/C), ճանճ (WA) jar
f ֆ ֆուտբոլ fire
g [1] գ կ գազան (EA/C), կատու (WA) good
h հ Հայաստան hot
j յ յուղ yes
ք գ, ք քամի (EA/C), գարուն, քամի (WA) can
k [2] կ [3] կատու scan
l լ լուսին lace
m մ մայր mine
n ն նուռ nest
ŋ[4] ն մենք think
փ բ, փ փաթիլ (EA/C), բերան, փաթիլ (WA) port
p [2] պ [3] պատ sport
r [2] ռ ր, ռ[5] ռումբ Spanish perro (trilled)
ɹ~ɾ [6] ր րոպե red
ʁ ղ ղեկ French rue, Northumbrian burr
s ս սար sip
ʃ շ շուն ship
թ դ, թ թուղթ (EA/C), դու, թուղթ top
t [2] տ [3] տուն stop
tsʰ ց ձ, ց ցուլ (EA/C), ձեւ, ցուլ (WA) cats hit
ts [2] ծ [3] ծիծաղ cats
tʃʰ չ չ, ջ չամիչ (EA/C), չամիչ, ջուր (WA) chin
[2] ճ [3] ճանճ beach
v վ, ւ վիրավոր (EA/C), վիրաւոր (WA) van
χ խ խաղող Scottish loch
z զ զարդ zoo
ʒ ժ ժամանակ pleasure
Monophthongs
IPA Orthography Examples English approximation
Reformed Classical
ɑ ա ա, այ [7] արեւ, կը դողայ, հիմա lava
ɛ ե,[8] է Վահէ set
ə ը (usually not written) մ(ը)տածում, (ը)սքանչելի, ընկեր about
i ի իր sit
ɔ ո,[9] օ ո,[9] օ, ոյ [7] օրէնք, ովկիանոս, հորթ, յետոյ hold
u ու տուն boot
ʏ N/A իւ գիւղ Somewhat like cute
œ էօ Էօժենի Somewhat like nurse


Diphthongs
IPA Orthography Examples English approximation
Reformed Classical
ɑj այ այգի, հայ eye
ɛj եյ, էյ էյ թէյ say
ij իյ իյնալ seet
ɔj ոյ խոյ boy
uj ույ ոյ քոյր buoy
յա, իա յա, իա, էա, եա, եայ[7] սենեակ, կայան yuck
ե, յե, յէ երազ, հայելի, նայէ՛ yes
ji յի յի; occurs in էի կ'ուզէին, Մայիս yeast
յո եօ եօթը yolk
ju յու յու, իւ; occurs in իու, էու իւղ, կայուն you


Suprasegmentals
IPA Meaning
ˈ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Plosives and affricates that are voiced in Eastern Armenian /b d dz dʒ ɡ/ are voiceless aspirated /pʰ tʰ tsʰ tʃʰ kʰ/ in Western Armenian. "In some publications, the voiceless plosives [of Eastern Armenian] are also defined as ejectives or glottalised. Glottalised plosives occur in various Armenian dialects and can also be found in the Eastern Armenian vernacular based on the Yerevan dialect, but according to normative grammars, SMEA [Standard Modern Eastern Armenian] shows no glottalised voiceless plosives." Jasmine Dum-Tragut. Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian. London Oriental and African Language Library, 2007, ISSN 1382-3485; p. 17
  2. ^ a b c d e f /p t ts tʃ k/ are not used in Western Armenian.
  3. ^ a b c d e Plosives and affricates that are tenuis /p t ts tʃ k/ in Eastern Armenian and Classical Armenian are voiced /b d dz dʒ ɡ/ in Western Armenian.
  4. ^ Allophone of /n/ before velar consonants.
  5. ^ The two rhotics represented as ⟨ռ⟩ and ⟨ր⟩ have merged to /ɾ/ in Western Armenian.
  6. ^ In Classical Armenian and among modern Iranian Armenians, /ɾ/ is an alveolar approximant [ɹ].
  7. ^ a b c Classical Armenian ⟨այ, ոյ, եայ⟩ are only found word-finally.
  8. ^ ե⟩ represents [jɛ] when word-initial.
  9. ^ a b ո⟩ represents [vɔ] when word-initial.